Ess of ES - Skeleton-Nerves.csv
Card Set Information
Ess of ES - Skeleton-Nerves.csv
Skeleton, Nervous System
"Compact, dense bone that is found in the shafts of long bones and the vertebral endplates."
Also called Compact bone.
Makes up 75% of the human skeleton.
Spongy bone compased of thin plates that form a honeycome pattern; predominantely found in the ends of long bones and the vertebral bodies.
Also called Cancellous bone
Provides a large surface area for mineral exchange and helps to maintain skeletal strength and integrity.
Makes up 25% of the human skeleton.
The shaft of a long bone
The end of a long bone.
The hollow space inside the diaphysis of a long bone.
Used as a storage site for fat
Also called the Yellow Bonen Marrow Cavity
Lined by the endosteum
A soft connective tissue lining the internal surface of the diaphysis (medullary cavity) on a long bone.
Also called a Growth Plate
Separates the diaphysis and the epiphysis in children and young adults
Location of bone growth.
"After growth phases are complete, it is replaced by bone and called the Epiphyseal Line."
"A double-layered connective tissue sheath surrounding the outer surface bones, except for the articular cartilage."
Contains nerves and blood vessels and serves to cover and nourish the bone.
Serves as the attachement sites for tendons/muscles.
Cells that build up the bones.
Cells that dissolve the bone.
Form follows function
Changes in bone structure coincide with changes in bone function.
Bone is capable of increasing its strength in response to stress/force (e.g. exercise) by creating more bone.
What percent of the adult skeleton is remodeled each years?
"Approximately 10%, which mean the entire skeleton is remodeled in approximately 10 years."
How many bones in the Human Skeleton?
74 in the Axial Skeleton
126 in the Appendicular Skeleton
6 Auditory ossicles
Vertebral Column (including the Sacrum and Coccyx)
Main Functions of Axial Skeleton
Provide the main axial support for the body
Protect the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Protect the organs of the thorax
Bones of the Vertebral Column
Total 24 (or 33)
(5 Sacral - Fused)
(4 in Coccyx - Fused)
Three Main types of Joints
"Held tightly together by fibrous connective tissues, allowing little or no movement."
: ""Immovable Joint"""
: Cranial Sutures, distal Tibiofibular joint"
Bone are connected by cartilage and allow little or no movement.
"Amphiarthroidal (""Slightly Moveable Joint"")"
"Includes Symphyses, which contain a fibrocartilaginous pad or disk, as in pubic symphysis or vertebral discs."
Diarthoidal (Freely moveable)
Articular (Hyaline) cartilage
Uniplanar (uniaxial) joints
Joints that move in only one plane and have only one axis of rotation.
"Also called ""hinge joints"""
Biplanar (biaxial) joints
Allow movement in two planes that are perpendicular to each other.
"e.g. Knee, Hand, Wrist"
Multiplanar (triaxial) joints
Allow movement in three planes.
"e.g. hip, thumb, shoulder"
Four general types of movements of synovial joints?
"A group of nerve cells bodies, usually located in the PNS."
Major Paired Nerves
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Divisions of the Efferent Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
The site at which a motor neuron transmits information to a muscle fiber.
Specialized bulblike mechanoreceptors located in the subcutaneous tissues of the skin (and in joint capsules) that are responsible for detecting pressue.
"Occur abundantly in the skin of palms, soles, and in joints."
A Specialized mechanoreceptor located in the superficial aspect of the skin responsible for detecting light touch.
"Occur abundantly in the skin of the fingertips, palms, soles, lips, tongue, and face."
A specialized mechanoreceptor located in the joint capsule responsible for detecting joint compression.
Any weightbearing activity stimulates these receptors.
Golgi Tndon Organ (GTO)
A musculotendinous sensory organ (proprioceptor) within tendons that detects tension within its associated muscle when the muscle is contracted or stretched.
Causes autogenic inhibition (relaxation) in its assocated muscle and activation in the antagonist muscle.
Connected to approximately 15-20 muscle fibers.
A musculotendinous receptor located in the muscle belly which lies parallel to the muscle fibers.
Senses when a muscles is stretched and caused the muscle to then reflexively contract (reflex stretch)
Also causes the antagonist muscle to relax (reciprocal inhibition).
Three semicircular canals in the inner ear that lie at right angles to each other
"Part of the CNS that coordinates reflexes of the eyes, neck, and body to maintain equilibrium in accordance with posture and movement of the head."