Ess of ES - Skeleton-Nerves.csv

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Ess of ES - Skeleton-Nerves.csv
2012-04-07 01:01:01
Ess ES

Skeleton, Nervous System
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  1. Cortical Bone
    • "Compact, dense bone that is found in the shafts of long bones and the vertebral endplates."
    • Also called Compact bone.
    • Makes up 75% of the human skeleton.
  2. Trabecular Bone
    • Spongy bone compased of thin plates that form a honeycome pattern; predominantely found in the ends of long bones and the vertebral bodies.
    • Also called Cancellous bone
    • Provides a large surface area for mineral exchange and helps to maintain skeletal strength and integrity.
    • Makes up 25% of the human skeleton.
  3. Diaphysis
    The shaft of a long bone
  4. Epyphysis
    The end of a long bone.
  5. Medullary cavity
    • The hollow space inside the diaphysis of a long bone.
    • Used as a storage site for fat
    • Also called the Yellow Bonen Marrow Cavity
    • Lined by the endosteum
  6. Endosteum
    A soft connective tissue lining the internal surface of the diaphysis (medullary cavity) on a long bone.
  7. Epiphyseal Cartilage
    • Also called a Growth Plate
    • Separates the diaphysis and the epiphysis in children and young adults
    • Location of bone growth.
    • "After growth phases are complete, it is replaced by bone and called the Epiphyseal Line."
  8. Periosteum
    • "A double-layered connective tissue sheath surrounding the outer surface bones, except for the articular cartilage."
    • Contains nerves and blood vessels and serves to cover and nourish the bone.
    • Serves as the attachement sites for tendons/muscles.
  9. Osteoblasts
    Cells that build up the bones.
  10. Osteoclasts
    Cells that dissolve the bone.
  11. Wolff's Law
    • Form follows function
    • Changes in bone structure coincide with changes in bone function.
    • Bone is capable of increasing its strength in response to stress/force (e.g. exercise) by creating more bone.
  12. What percent of the adult skeleton is remodeled each years?
    "Approximately 10%, which mean the entire skeleton is remodeled in approximately 10 years."
  13. How many bones in the Human Skeleton?
    • 206 total
    • 74 in the Axial Skeleton
    • 126 in the Appendicular Skeleton
    • 6 Auditory ossicles
  14. Axial Skeleton
    • 74 Bones
    • Skull
    • Vertebral Column (including the Sacrum and Coccyx)
    • Sternum
    • Ribs
  15. Main Functions of Axial Skeleton
    • Provide the main axial support for the body
    • Protect the Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Protect the organs of the thorax
  16. Bones of the Vertebral Column
    • Total 24 (or 33)
    • 7 Cervical
    • 12 Thoracic
    • 5 Lumbar
    • (5 Sacral - Fused)
    • (4 in Coccyx - Fused)
  17. Three Main types of Joints
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  18. Fibrous Joints
    • "Held tightly together by fibrous connective tissues, allowing little or no movement."
    • "Synarthroidal: ""Immovable Joint"""
    • "Examples: Cranial Sutures, distal Tibiofibular joint"
  19. Cartilaginous Joints
    • Bone are connected by cartilage and allow little or no movement.
    • "Amphiarthroidal (""Slightly Moveable Joint"")"
    • "Includes Symphyses, which contain a fibrocartilaginous pad or disk, as in pubic symphysis or vertebral discs."
  20. Synovial Joint
    • Diarthoidal (Freely moveable)
    • Articular (Hyaline) cartilage
    • Articular Capsule
    • Synovial Membrane
    • Synovial Fluid
  21. Uniplanar (uniaxial) joints
    • Joints that move in only one plane and have only one axis of rotation.
    • "Also called ""hinge joints"""
  22. Biplanar (biaxial) joints
    • Allow movement in two planes that are perpendicular to each other.
    • "e.g. Knee, Hand, Wrist"
  23. Multiplanar (triaxial) joints
    • Allow movement in three planes.
    • "e.g. hip, thumb, shoulder"
  24. Four general types of movements of synovial joints?
    • Gliding
    • Angular
    • Circumduction
    • Rotation
  25. Ganglia
    "A group of nerve cells bodies, usually located in the PNS."
  26. Major Paired Nerves
    • 12 Cranial
    • 8 Cervical
    • 12 Thoracic
    • 5 Lumbar
    • 5 Sacral
    • 1 Coccygeal
  27. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  28. Divisions of the Efferent Nerves
    • Somatic
    • Autonomic Nervous System
  29. Neuromuscular Junction
    The site at which a motor neuron transmits information to a muscle fiber.
  30. Pacinian Corpuscles
    • Specialized bulblike mechanoreceptors located in the subcutaneous tissues of the skin (and in joint capsules) that are responsible for detecting pressue.
    • "Occur abundantly in the skin of palms, soles, and in joints."
  31. Meissner's Corpuscle
    • A Specialized mechanoreceptor located in the superficial aspect of the skin responsible for detecting light touch.
    • "Occur abundantly in the skin of the fingertips, palms, soles, lips, tongue, and face."
  32. Golgi-Mazzoni Corpuscle
    • A specialized mechanoreceptor located in the joint capsule responsible for detecting joint compression.
    • Any weightbearing activity stimulates these receptors.
  33. Golgi Tndon Organ (GTO)
    • A musculotendinous sensory organ (proprioceptor) within tendons that detects tension within its associated muscle when the muscle is contracted or stretched.
    • Causes autogenic inhibition (relaxation) in its assocated muscle and activation in the antagonist muscle.
    • Connected to approximately 15-20 muscle fibers.
  34. Muscle Spindle
    • A musculotendinous receptor located in the muscle belly which lies parallel to the muscle fibers.
    • Senses when a muscles is stretched and caused the muscle to then reflexively contract (reflex stretch)
    • Also causes the antagonist muscle to relax (reciprocal inhibition).
  35. Vestibular System
    • Three semicircular canals in the inner ear that lie at right angles to each other
    • "Part of the CNS that coordinates reflexes of the eyes, neck, and body to maintain equilibrium in accordance with posture and movement of the head."