Social Psych

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Social Psych
2012-04-07 01:13:36
Social Psych

Chapter 10
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  1. Prosocial behaviour
    is any act performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
  2. Altruism
    is the desire to help another person even if it involves a cost to the helper.
  3. Evolutionary psychology suggests that prosocial behaviour occurs in part because of:
    -Kin selection (behaviour that helps a genetic relative is favoured by natural selection).

    -Norm of reciprocity (the expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future).
  4. Social exchange theory argues that altruistic behaviour:
    -Can be based on self-interest.

    -Stems from the desire to maximize our outcomes and minimize our costs.
  5. Empathy
    is defined as the ability to put ourselves in the shoes of another person, experiencing events and emotions the way that person experiences them.
  6. The empathy-altruism hypothesis
    suggests that, if a person feels empathy towards another person, the person will help her/him when help is needed, regardless of what the person has to gain.
  7. Altruistic personality
    refers to the aspects of a person’s makeup that are said to make him or her likely to help others in a wide variety of situations.
  8. Altruistic personality Gender Differences:
    Men:Are more likely to perform chivalrous and heroic acts.
  9. Women:Are more likely to be helpful in long-term relationships that involve greater commitment.
  10. Cultural Differences in Prosocial Behaviour

    In all cultures people are:
    • -More likely to help a member of their in-group, the group with which an individual identifies and of which s/he feels a member.
    • -Less likely to help a member of an out-group, a group with which the individual does not identify.
  11. Cultural Differences in Prosocial Behaviour

    Compared to members of individualist cultures, members of collective societies are:
    • -more likely to help in-group members.
    • -less likely to help out-group members.
  12. Researchers have found a “feel good, do good” effect in diverse situations. People are more likely to help when they are in a good mood.This may happen because:
    • -A good mood makes us look on the bright side of the life.
    • -Helping others prolongs our own good mood.
    • -Good moods increase self-awareness.
  13. We are also more likely to help if we are feeling guilty, sad, or distressed.This is called
    negative-state relief hypothesis,

    which is the idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress. This hypothesis exemplifies a social exchange approach.
  14. As compared to people in urban areas, people in rural areas usually help more. What theory explains this?
    The urban-overload hypothesis

    suggests that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation so they keep to themselves in order to avoid being overloaded by it.
  15. The bystander effect suggests that:
    the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency the less likely any one of them will help (Kitty Genovese example).
  16. Latané & Darley (1970) showed that:
    • -People go through five decision-making steps before they help someone in an emergency.
    • -If bystanders fail to take any one of the five steps, they will not help-
  17. The five decision-making steps before helping someone, suggested by Latané & Darley (1970), are (see Figure 10.4):
    • 1 - Noticing an event.
    • 2 - Interpreting the event as an emergency.
    • 3 - Assuming responsibility.
    • 4 - Knowing an appropriate form of assistance.
    • 5 - Implementing the decision to help
  18. Pluralistic ignorance
    suggests that bystanders assume that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned.

    Associated with Interpreting the event as an emergency.
  19. Diffusion of Responsibility
    suggests that each bystander’s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses to an emergency or crisis increases.

    Associated with assuming responsibility
  20. The Nature of the Relationship: Communal vs. Exchange Relationships

    In exchange relationships, people are concerned with:
    • -equity
    • -keeping track of who is contributing what to the relationship.
  21. The Nature of the Relationship: Communal vs. Exchange Relationships

    In communal relationships
    people are concerned more with how much help the another person needs.

    -When the person is close to us, we are less concerned with the benefits we get
  22. In order to encourage prosocial behaviour, parents and others can:
    -Reward prosocial acts with praise, smiles, and hugs.

    -Behave prosocially themselves to represent a model of those behaviours for the children.
  23. Teaching people about the determinants of prosocial behaviour:
    -Makes them more aware of why they sometimes don’t help

    -Leads them to help more in the future.