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- is a hostile or negative attitude, made up of three components:
- 1 - An affective or emotional component, representing the type of emotion linked with the attitude (e.g. anger, warmth).
- 2 - A cognitive component, involving the beliefs or thoughts that make up the attitude.
- 3 - A behavioural component, relating to one’s action.
Refers to a general attitude structure and its affective (emotional) component.
Can involve either positive or negative affect.
- Usually is a hostile or negative attitude:
- - toward a distinguishable group of people,
- - based solely on their membership in that group.
stereotype is a generalization about a
is a generalization about a group of people, in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
is the behavioural component of prejudice and includes an unjustified, negative, or harmful action towards a member of a group, simply because of the person’s membership in the group
According to social identity theory, other people are seen as belonging:
- - either to our group (known as in-group)
- - or to a different group (known as the out- group).
is the tendency in humans to evaluate in-group members more positively than out-group members.
is the perception that those in the out-group are more similar (homogeneous) to each other than they really are and more similar than the members of the in-group are to each other.
In order to explain how stereotypical beliefs affect cognitive processing, a two-step model (Divine, 2003) suggests that:
- 1 - the automatic process happens, in which the stereotypes are automatically triggered
- 2 - the controlled process happens, in which the person decides whether or not to accept the stereotype.
a person’s beliefs regarding the stereotypes that out-group members hold about their own group.
Research suggests that mood affects prejudice:
- People in a good mood feel more favourably toward other racial or ethnic groups than do people in a bad mood.
The ultimate attribution error refers to our tendency to make :
- - Internal, dispositional attributions for the negative behaviours of out-group members.
- - External, situational attributions for their positive behaviours.
Realistic conflict theory
- suggests that limited resources lead to:
- - Conflict between groups.
- -Increased prejudice and discrimination
is a situation in which two or more groups need each other, and must depend on each other, in order to accomplish a goal that is important to each group.
- Prejudice can be reduced by fostering common goals.
As the norm swings more toward tolerance for certain out-groups, many people become more careful, outwardly acting unprejudiced but inwardly maintaining their prejudiced views.
The Way We Conform:Normative Rules
By far the greatest determinant of prejudice is conformity to social norms.
Many people hold prejudiced attitudes and engage in discriminatory behaviour in order to conform to, or fit in with, the prevailing majority view of their culture (Pettigrew, 1991).
Several individual difference variables are associated with prejudice.Being prejudiced against out-groups is positively correlated with scores on these traits:
- - Right-wing authoritarianism.
- - Religious fundamentalism
- -Social dominance orientation.
When a member of a disadvantaged group is mistreated by a member of a majority group, the disadvantaged person is unlikely to perform well, thereby confirming the majority group member’s negative stereotype and perpetuating the discrimination.
is the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype about their own group.
This can be reduced by normalizing the behaviour, exposing them to successful role models, and reminding them of their potential.
Victims of discrimination may blame themselves for their poor performance.This may help the victims to preserve:
- - a sense of social acceptance.
- - the perception of control.
Prejudice can be reduced by having:
- - People experience what it is like to be the victim of discrimination.
- - Children teach each other not to be prejudiced.
An effective way of reducing prejudice is through contact—bringing in-group and out-group members together.
The jigsaw classroom
- is a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and to raise the self-esteem of children by:
- - Placing them in small desegregated groups.
- - Making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material, and do well in the class.