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Renal failure (kidney failure)
1. Inability of one or both kidneys to perform their functions.
2. The body cannot replace damaged nephrons, & when too many have been destoryed, the result is kidney failure
4. Patient can exhibit Nephrotic Syndrome when in renal failure.
- 3. Can be caused by:
- .....a. Nephropathy
- .....b. Nephrosis
Uremia (uremic poisoning)
- Toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which:
- ......1. Kidney function is compromised
- ......2. Urea is retained in the blood
Types of renal failure
- 1. Acute Renal Failure:
- .....a. Caused by:
- ..........(1.) Injury
- ..........(2.) Surgery..........(3.) Sudden loss of blood volume & pressure
- .....c. Can be fatal if not reversed promptly
- .....d. Sudden onset
- .....e. Extreme symptoms
- .....f. Short duration
- .....g. Goes away
- .....e. Kidneys suddenly shut down.
- 2. Chronic Renal Failure:
- ......a. Caused by other diseases such as:
- ..........(1.) Kidney disease
- ..........(2.) Diabetes
- ..........(3.) Hypertension
- .....b. Ongoing
- .....c. Generally less severe
- .....d. Cannot be cured.
- .....e. Sometimes leads to uremia.
- 3. End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD):
- .....a. Over time kidneys have reached the point of failing
- .....b. Patient will require dialysis or kidney transplant
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
- 1. Condition in which acute renal failure & possibly death may be caused by:
- .....a. Hemolytic anemia (abnormally low # of circulating RBCs due to early destruction by the spleen)
- .....b. Thromocytopenia (abnormally low # of platelets circulating in the bloodstream)
2. Syndrome can be a result of E. coli infection in young children & the elderly.
1. General term meaning any disease or disorder of the kidneys
2. Includes both inflammatory and degenerative conditions
- 3. Diabetic nephropathy is:
- .....a. Disease characterized by hyperproteinuria
- .....b. Result of thickening & hardening of the glomeruli caused by long term diabetes mellitus.
1. A degenerative kidney disease without inflammation
2. More specific or narrow kidney condition than nephropathy
3. One of the causes of Nephrotic Syndrome.
- Collection of signs and symptoms that occur when kidneys are damaged:
- .....a. Hyperproteinuria
- .....b. Hypoproteinemia
- .....c. Anuria
- .....d. Edema
- .....e. Hypertension
- .....f. Hypercholesterolemia
1. Presence of abnormally high concentration of protein in the urine.
2. This condition is often associated with hypoproteinemia.
1. Presence of abnormal low concentrations of protein in the blood.
2 This condition is often associated by hypoproteinuria.
Absence of urine formation by the kidneys
Excessive fluid in the body tissues.
1. Swelling of one or both kidneys caused by a backup of urine
- 2. Due to:
- .....a. Obstruction such as a stricture in the ureter
- .....b. Blockage in opening from bladder to urethra
- .....c. Blockage to the urethra itself
1. Distension or enlargement of renal pelvis.
2. May or may not be caused by fluid.
1. Inflammation of the kidney or kidneys
- 2. Two most common causes are:
- .....a. Infection
- .....b. Autoimmune disease
Glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease)
1. Type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli
2. Causes RBCs & proteins to leak into the urine.
Nephroptosis (floating kidney)
Prolapse of a kidney
Means slipping or falling out of place.
Suppuration of the kidney.
Means formation or discharge of pus.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
1. Genetic disorder characterized by growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
- 2. Cysts slowly:
- ......a. Replace much of the mass of the kidney
- ......b. Reduce kidney function
3. Eventually leads to kidney disease
1. Acute pain in kidney area
2. Caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone
1. Malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children
2. High cure rate for this condition when it is treated promptly
Stone (snglr: Calculus; plrl: Calculi )
1. Abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body
2. Stones vary in size from small sand-like granules to the size of marbles
3. Named for the organ or tissue where they are located.
4. In the urinary system, stones are formed when waste products in the urine crystallize.
1. Describes the presence of stones in the kidney
2. As stones travel with the urine, they are named for location where they become lodged.
Nephrolith (renal calculus or kidney stone)
Stone found in the kidney
Stone located anywhere along the ureter
Stone located within the urinary bladder
Distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked.
Distention of a ureter for any of a variety of reasons
Discharge of blood from the ureter
Urinary Tract Infection
1. Usually begins in the bladder
2. Infections can affect all or parts of the urinary system
3. Occur more frequently in women because urethra is short and located near openings to the vagina & rectum.
Inflammation of the urethra
Inflammation of the bladder
Inflammation of the renal pelvis
1. Inflammation of both renal pelvis & kidney
2. Usually caused by a bacterial infection that has spread upward from the bladder.
Pain in the urinary bladder
Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Hernia of the bladder thru the vaginal wall.
1. Chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
2. Symptoms of this condition are similar to those of cystitis but do not respond to traditional treatment.
Means relating to spaces within a tissue or organ
Inflammation of the urinary bladder localized in the region of the trigone.
1. Abnormal opening between the bladder & vagina
2. Allows constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
Abnormal passage between two internal organs.
Urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination.
2. Depending on type of neurological disorder causing this, the bladder may:
- .....a. Empty spontaneously (incontinence)
- .....b. Not empty at all (urinary retention with overflow leakage)
- 3. Causes include:
- .....a. Tumor of the nervous system
- .....b. Trauma
- .....c. Neuropathy
- .....d. Inflammatory condition such as MS
Means the inability to control the voiding of urine (or excretion of feces)
Inability to control voiding of urine
- Inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as:
- .....1. Running
- .....2. Sneezing
- .....3. Laughing
- .....4. Coughing
Overactive Bladder (urge incontinence)
1. Occurs when detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active
- 2. Symptoms can include urinary:
- .....a. Frequency
- .....b. Urgency
- .....c. Accidental urination due to a sudden & unstoppable need to urinate.
A peripheral nervous sysatem disorder affecting nerves anywhere except the brain or the spinal cord.
Bleeding from the urethra.
1. Abnormal discharge from the urethra
2. This condition is associated with some sexually transmitted diseases.
1. Narrowing of the urethra
2. This condition occurs almost exclusively in men
3. Often associated with prostate enlargement.
1. Congenital abnormality of the urethral opening
2. In Male: Urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis
3. In Female: Urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris.
1. Congential abnormality of urethral opening
2. In Male: Urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis
3. In Female: Urethral opening is into the vagina
1. Congenital abnormality in males
2. Urethral opening is on the side of the penis.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (also known as BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate, prostatomegaly)
1. Abnormal enlargement of the protate gland that occurs most often in men over sge 50.
2. This condition can make urination difficult.
1. Condition of having SYMPTOMS resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to BPH.
2. This can produce difficulties with
- .....a. Urination
- .....b. Urinary retention.
1. One of the most common cancers among men.
2. Can grow slowly with no symptoms or
3. Can grow aggressively and spread throughout the body.
Inflammation of the prostate gland.
Increased output of urine.
1. Difficult or painful urination
2. This condition is frequently associated with urinary tract infections.
Involuntary discharge of urine.
Noctural enuresis (bed-wetting)
Urinary incontinence during sleep.
Means pertaining to night
Excessive urination during the night
Means scanty urination
Means excessive urination
1. Difficulty in starting a urinary stream
2. This condition is most common in older men with enlarged prostate glands.
3. In younger people, the inabilitiy to urinate when nother person is present is known as bashful bladder syndrome.
1. Inability to empty the bladder
2. Condition is also more common in men
3. Frequently associated with an enlarged prostate gland.
Examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements
1. Use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in thte badder adter urination.
2. A normal bladder holds between 300-400 cc's of urine.
3. When more than this amount is still present after urination, the bladder is described as being distended.
1. Insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes.
2. It is also used to remove urine from the bladder when the patient is unable to urinate for other reasons or to introduce medication into the bladder.
1. Radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter.
2. The resulting film is a cystogram.
Visual examination of urinary bladder using a cystocope.
- A specialized endoscope used for diagnostic examination of the bladder as well as:
- .....1. Removal of tumors
- .....2. Reduction of an enlarged prostate gland
Introvenous pyelogram (excretory urography)
1. Radiologic study of the kidneys & ureters
2. A contrast medium
is administered intravenously
to clearly define these structures.
- 3. Study used to diagnose changes in the urinary tract resultuing from:
- .....a. Kidney stones
- .....b. Infections
- .....c. Enlarged prostate
- .....d. Tumors
- .....e. Internal injuries after anabdominal trauma
Computed Tomography (CAT scan)
- Most commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system beause it:
- .....a. Can be rapidly performed
- .....b. Provides additional imaging of the abdomen which may reveal other potential sources for the patient's symptoms.
KUB (Flat-plate of the abdomen)
Radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB) without the use of a contrast medium.
1. Radiograph of the urinary system
2. Taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter & caused to flow upward (backward) thru the urinary tract.
1. Diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder, thru the urethra
2. This procedure is often performed AFTER cystography.
Digital Rectal Examination
- Performed on men to screen for:.....a. Prostate enlargement.....b. Infection.....c. Indications of prostate cancer.
Means (in this context) performed with a glover finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland.
Means use of hands to examine a body part
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA Test)
1. Blood test is used to screen for prostate cancer.
2 Commonly referred to as the PSA test
3. Measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen that is present in a blood specimen.
4. Protein-specific antigen is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland.
5. The higher the PSA level, the more likely it is that cancer is present.
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