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What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
- Master controlling and communicating system
- Responsible for all thought, action and emotion
- Responsible for maintaining homeostasis
What are the 2 sections of the nervous system?
- CNS - brain, spinal cord, integrative and control centres
- PNS - cranial and spinal nerves, communication between CNS and body
What do the 4 lobes of the brain control?
- Frontal lobe - personality, emotion, behaviour, cognitive
- Temporal lobe - speech, memory
- Parietal lobe - motor, sensory
- Occipital lobe - vision
What are the 3 functional areas of the cerebal cortex?
* No functional area of the cortex acts alone and conscious behaviour involves the entire cortex *
- Motor (voluntary movement
- Sensory (sensation)
- Association (integration of sensory feelings and motor control)
What are the 2 functional sub-divisions of the PNS?
(1) Sensory or afferent division - transmits TO THE CNS from receptors
(2) Motor or efferent division - transmits FROM CNS to effector organs
What are the 2 types of afferents within the Sensory or Afferent division of the PNS?
- Somatic afferents = sensory fibres conveying impulses from the skin, skeletal muscle and joints
- Visceral afferents = sensory fibres transmitting from the body cavity
What are the 2 sub-divisions of the motor or efferent division of the PNS?
(1) Somatic nervous system (some voluntary control)
(2) Autonomic nervous system (no voluntary control)
Describe the somatic nervous system.
- Voluntary nervous system
- Somatic nerve fibres conduct impulses from CNS to the skeletal muscle
- Under conscious control and permits individuals to control their skeletal muscles
Describe the autonomic nervous system.
- Involuntary nervous system
- Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
- Beyond our control
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
(1) Parasympathetic division
(2) Sympathetic division
Act on the same organs but have the opposite effect = process of dual innervation that permits the body to maintain homeostasis
Describe the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
- Most active in non-stressful situations
- Responsible for keeping body energy use as low as possible
- When dominant:
- -Nutrient absorbtion increases
- -Smooth (involuntary) muscle activity increases
- -Constriction of respiratory passageways
- -Decreased HR
Describe the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
- Fight or flight
- Actions noticeable when excited or threatened
- Responsible for permitting the body to rapidly deal with situations that threaten homeostasis