Neurophysiology

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Author:
bbarratt
ID:
146223
Filename:
Neurophysiology
Updated:
2012-04-07 12:29:19
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Physiology
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Neurophysiology
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  1. What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
    • Master controlling and communicating system
    • Responsible for all thought, action and emotion
    • Responsible for maintaining homeostasis
  2. What are the 2 sections of the nervous system?
    • CNS - brain, spinal cord, integrative and control centres
    • PNS - cranial and spinal nerves, communication between CNS and body
  3. What do the 4 lobes of the brain control?
    • Frontal lobe - personality, emotion, behaviour, cognitive
    • Temporal lobe - speech, memory
    • Parietal lobe - motor, sensory
    • Occipital lobe - vision
  4. What are the 3 functional areas of the cerebal cortex?
    • Motor (voluntary movement
    • Sensory (sensation)
    • Association (integration of sensory feelings and motor control)

    * No functional area of the cortex acts alone and conscious behaviour involves the entire cortex *
  5. What are the 2 functional sub-divisions of the PNS?
    (1) Sensory or afferent division - transmits TO THE CNS from receptors

    (2) Motor or efferent division - transmits FROM CNS to effector organs
  6. What are the 2 types of afferents within the Sensory or Afferent division of the PNS?
    • Somatic afferents = sensory fibres conveying impulses from the skin, skeletal muscle and joints
    • Visceral afferents = sensory fibres transmitting from the body cavity
  7. What are the 2 sub-divisions of the motor or efferent division of the PNS?
    (1) Somatic nervous system (some voluntary control)

    (2) Autonomic nervous system (no voluntary control)
  8. Describe the somatic nervous system.
    • Voluntary nervous system
    • Somatic nerve fibres conduct impulses from CNS to the skeletal muscle
    • Under conscious control and permits individuals to control their skeletal muscles
  9. Describe the autonomic nervous system.
    • Involuntary nervous system
    • Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
    • Beyond our control
  10. What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
    (1) Parasympathetic division

    (2) Sympathetic division

    Act on the same organs but have the opposite effect = process of dual innervation that permits the body to maintain homeostasis
  11. Describe the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
    • Most active in non-stressful situations
    • Responsible for keeping body energy use as low as possible

    • When dominant:
    • -Nutrient absorbtion increases
    • -Smooth (involuntary) muscle activity increases
    • -Constriction of respiratory passageways
    • -Decreased HR
  12. Describe the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
    • Fight or flight
    • Actions noticeable when excited or threatened
    • Responsible for permitting the body to rapidly deal with situations that threaten homeostasis

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