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What are the 4 major anatomical regions of the brain?
Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Brain stem, and Cerebellum
What are the two regions in the diencephalon?
Thalamus and hypothalamus
What are the three regions of the brain stem?
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Why is proper nutrition important to the brain, and what is the main nutrient it requires?
The brain is one of the few organs that can only use glucose to get ATP as its energy source. Therefore, without some sugar in our bloodstream, the brain will die.
What region of the brain is responsible for logical thought and conscious awareness?
What region of the brain is responsible for the highest sensory and motor activity?
What is the purpose of having gyri and sulci in the brain?
The gyri and sulci increase the surface area, and the surface is where the information processing is.
What structure separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
What is the largest portion of the brain?
What is the second largest portion of the brain?
1. Is the CEREBRUM made of grey matter or white matter?
2. What is grey matter made up of?
3. What is white matter made up of?
- 1. Cerebrum is made of grey matter
- 2. Grey matter is made of cell bodies, dendrites, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons.
- 3. White matter is made of myelinated axons
What are the two halves of the cerebrum called?
What area connects the right & left halves of the brain?
What would be the effect of cutting the corpus callosum?
The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.
What disorder has problems with communication between the right and left halves of the brain?
Autism is a neurological disease that includes problems with communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
What does the left side of the brain control? What does the right side of the brain control?
- Critical thinking
What part of the brain sorts out all the unnecessary sensory information?
What region of the brain provides homeostatic control over the body?
What part of the brain that exerts more control over autonomic functioning than any other part?
What is the main visceral control center of the brain?
What does the hypothalamus control?
Temperature, autonomic nervous reflexes, glucose and hormone levels, and the visceral reflexes (digestion, sweating, hunger, thirst, and sleep)
What are the three parts of the brain stem?
Brain stem: PONS, MIDBRAIN, and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
What part of the brain controls automatic behaviors, such as fight-or-flight?
What part of the brain controls visual and audio REFLEXES?
- The CORPORA QUADRAGEMINI
- They send the information to the MIDBRAIN for processing
What part of the brain is involved in addictions and in initiating body movement? Where is it located?
What neurotransmitter does it secrete?
What disease is caused from damage to the substatia nigra?
- The SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, which is in the MIDBRAIN
- Substatia nigra secretes DOPAMINE
- Damage to the substantia nigra causes PARKINSON'S DISEASE. Treatment is to replace the dopamine
What are two symptoms of Parkinson's Disease?
- Trouble starting movements
- Pill-rolling tremor at rest
What part of the brain relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum?
What part of the brain controls autonomic functions such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate?
What part of the brain plays a role in rousing and maintaining consciousness? Where is it located?
- RETICULAR FORMATION.
- It is located throughout the brainstem
What does melatonin do in humans?
Allows circadian rhythms (sleep cycles; what time of day you feel like sleeping or waking)
What part of the brain makes melatonin?
Pineal gland (pineal body)
What part of the brain is the BIOLOGICAL CLOCK and is responsible for jet lag?
PINEAL GLAND (pineal body)
What is the second largest portion of the brain? What's its function?
The CEREBELLUM is the second largest portion of the brain, and is responsible for being able to balance.
The PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX contains what type of neurons?
UPPER MOTOR NEURONS
What does the PRIMARY MOTOR ASSOCIATION AREA do?
Leaned motor skills and Planning movement
What area of the brain contains the motor homunculus?
What is the motor homunculus?
A drawing of a man that represents how many neuron cell bodies we have that innervate each region of our body.
Are all body parts equally represented by cell density in the motor area in proportion to their size in the body?
No. For instance, the lips and hands are drawn large to represent the many cells in the motor area that innervate those regions.
What area of the brain receives signals for touch and pressure?
PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
What area of the brain interprets signals for touch and pressure?
SOMATOSENSORY ASSOCIATION AREA
What area of the brain receives signals from the eyes?
What lobe is this area in?
What area of the brain interprets signals from the eyes?
- PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX
- In the occipital lobe
- VISUAL ASSOCIATION AREA
What is the effect of damage to Brodmann areas 18 and 19?
inability to recognize what one sees
What area of the brain receives signals from sounds? What area of the brain interprets signals from sounds?
- PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX
- AUDITORY ASSOCIATION AREA
What region of the brain allows for speech? Stroke in this area can cause what?
- Broca's area
- Stroke here can cause aphasia (unable to speak)
What region of the brain allows for understanding of words?
Which lobe coordinates PLANNING AND JUDGMENT?
What procedure was done to people who were overly aggressive?
Do neurons regenerate?
- Frontal lobe
- Frontal lobotomy
What part of the brain controls memory of events? Where are memories stored in the brain?
- They are stored throughout the brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
What is anterograde amnesia?
can't remember anything new
What is retrograde amnesia?
can't remember the past
What is a stroke?
Something which deprives an area of the brain of oxygen; usually from a blood clot or hemorrhage in the brain (broken blood vessel)
What is the most likely cause of amnesia?
What is dementia? What is Alzheimer's Disease?
- Dementia is loss of memory. It is a symptom, not a disease
- Alzheimer's Disease is the most common form of dementia.
In what system of the brain is memory, emotion, and smell linked?
The LIMBIC SYSTEM
The mammillary bodies are part of what region of the brain?
What is the function of the mammillary bodies?
How can you damage the mammillary bodies, and what disorder does it cause?
- They are part of the diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus area). They are also part of the limbic system.
- They relay recognition memory and add the sense of smell to memories.
- They are damaged by thiamine (vitamin B) deficiency or by alcohol. The disorder is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (anterograde amnesia)
What does the fornix do?
Carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies
What part of the brain controls balance and coordination?
What is the tough meningeal layer called?
What meningeal layer is between the dura mater and pia mater?
Which one of the meninges follows the brain surface into a cerebral sulcus?
- dura mater.
- ARACHNOID MATER
- pia mater
Where is Cerebrospinal fluid located?
The subaracbnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
What type of injection is between L3 and L4, abovethe dura mater, so only the nerves are affected?
- Ventricles and subarachnoid space
- arachnoid and pia
- An epidural.
What makes CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID? Where is CSF located? What are the functions of CSF?
- Ventricles and the subarachnoid space.
- 1. Allows the brain to float.
- 2. It cushions.
- 3. Acts as the lymphatic system of the brain (it doesn't have one).
What causes HYDROCEPHALY?
This is usually congenital, caused by a blockage of the cerebral aqueduct. Can be caused by a tumor in adults
What two types of organisms cause MENINGITIS? Which one is worse?
Can be caused from virus (not that bad) or bacteria (can be fatal).
What is the main symptom of meningitis?
What test is done to diagnose meningitis?
What is infection of the brain called and how is it caused?
- The main symptom is a headache
- SPINAL TAP
- ENCEPHALITIS. It can be caused by mosquito-borne illnesses, or bacteria
Define subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage
- The dura and arachnoid mater both have lots Of blood vessels, which might rupture
- Potentially fatal - blood accumulates and squeezes the brain. Tx = drill a hole
Name the main ventricles of the brain, and which is largest?
- Lateral ventricle (largest)
- Third ventricle
- Cerebral Aqueduct
- Fourth ventricle
- What fluid is it similar to?
- Where is it made?
- What structure makes it?
- What type of capillaries does it come out of, and to where does it spread
- Similar to plasma be/c it is derived from plasma
- Made in the 3rd and 4th ventricle by the CHOROID PLEXUS
- There are fenestrated capillaries there; the fluid spreads into the subarachnoid space
Define closed head injury
Brain hits inside of the skull
What are four ways that aging affects the nervous system?
Decline in sensory functions, motor function, short term memory, and insomnia
What machine is used to measure brain wave activity?
What are the 4 types of brain waves and what are they?
- Alpha-Active during wakeful relaxation (meditation, prayer)
- Beta-Active when learning, thinking
- Theta-Active when just falling asleep
- Delta-Active during deep sleep
What are two main therapies for brain tumors?
- Gamma knife radiation therapy
- Tumor-starving medicines (Avastin)
What does Avastin do?
Blocks VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
What is VEGF?
A chemical our cells make that causes blood vessels to grow toward the cell to feed it. This chemical is made in excess by cancer cells which need excess nutrients.
What part of the brain is first affected by alcohol?
What does alcohol do to a fetus
Fetal alcohol syndrome (most common cause of mental retardation in the USA)
What are some problems with nicotine?
It is highly addictive. It also increases the heart rate and blood pressure. Withdrawal symptoms include headache, irritability, and insomnia.
What effect does cocaine have on the brain?
Depletes dopamine (causes Parkinson's symptoms)
What are the withdrawal symptoms of heroin?
sweating, shakes, abdominal cramps, and an increase in heart rate
What are some negative effects of marijuana on the nervous system?
alteration in vision, judgment, and motor coordination