What were the theories behind Harrison's hypothesis?
More time in front of TV, less time doing other novel and stimulating activities
As cultivation analyses suggest, the messages and images on TV are relatively narrow and UNIFORM
More TV would reduce self complexity.
What does Larson say about TV and music?
TV is a way to buffer stress
Music is an active way to work through identity.
What is Larson's study's idea?
If you have a strong sense of self, you can navigate the things in everyday life
what were the results of harrison's study?
Increased TV exposure linked to DECREASED self-complexity scores
***Can't determine causation/time order
What is Steal & Brown's media practice model?
It maps peoples interaction with media and their lived experiences.
--> interaction --> application --> identity --> selection --> (in a circle)
Motivation plays a role.
According to steal and brown, what is intentional (appropriation)?
Strategic use of media to negotiate identity formation.
Mood regulation, social modeling, fantasies.
According to steal and brown, what is unintentional (incorporation) ?
Unconscious adoption of media norms and values into self.
Frames and cultivation
What was Steele and Brown's careful conclusion?
“The media’s influence on adolescents’ sense of themselves is complex and realized through everyday activities, making effects extremely difficult to measure—not because media are weak and the audience is strong, but rather because they are intricately woven into the fabric of daily life.
What d0 Dal Cin et al. suggest the mediators of media effects are?
Questions about smoking, drinking, parents, friends, personality, extra-curriculars.
Measures of the Dal Cin et al. Study?
Movies seen (linked to coding data)
Prototypes: Image of the typical peer who drinks (e.g., popular, cool, sexy)
Expectancies: Possible positive consequences of alcohol use (e.g., have more fun at parties, take mind off problems)
Norms:Perceived prevalence of alcohol use & being drunk among same-age youth
Friends’ use: How many friends drink?
Conclusions of Dal Cin et al?
Higher exposure to alcohol use in movies is associated with:
Greater alcohol consumption
More favourable images of drinkers
More positive expectancies about drinking
Greater perception of alcohol use as normative
Increases in reports of friends’ alcohol use
Limitations of Dal Cin et al?
Exposure to behaviour in the movie vs. exposure to movies in general
Causality and the direction of the effect
A need for experimental evidence
Refine understanding of the mechanism
What was Brown's theory?
Early maturation predicts increased consumption of sexual media because they don’t have any other source for information.
Brown et al selective attention?
Brown argues that there’s a component of selective attention. Identity gives you motivation for the selection. Some teens use media in a motivated way to learn about sex.
What does Brown et al say about super peers?
Earlier pubertal onset linked to increased interest, exposure, perceived permission
Key findings in ward's study about women:
Frequency of viewing MTV
Viewing to learn or to be entertained
Exposure to sex-themed TV clip
…Contributed independently to increased endorsement of stereotyped attitudes about sexual scripts and/or gender roles
Key findings in Ward's study with men:
Increased exposure to MTV
Active viewing, learning motive
Own sexual experience
independently to increased endorsement of stereotyped attitudes about sexual
scripts and/or gender roles
*Clips had little impact on perceptions*
What is prosocial content?
3. Altruism or helping behavior
2. Social Interactions time spent with others, cooperation, affection and attention
1. Acceptance of Others tolerance, diversity, reducing stereotypes
What were 2 components of the FCC guidelines for revising the content?
The difficulty with assessing prosocial content?
Prosocial and anti-social content often co-occur.
Prosocial justification of aggression may be more harming than helping.
What were four revisions of the 1990 Children's Television Act in 1996?
3 hours per week of programming
30 minutes minimum
More specific content qualifications
What are 2 competing hypotheses of prosocial media effects?
(1) Prosocial content could have stronger effects on viewers than antisocial content
(2) Anti social acts have stronger effects on viewers
To test the competing hypotheses and found different results:
Hearold found prosocial stronger than antisocial by 2x and longer term
Paik and Mares and Woodard found it was equal to antisocial
Smith did a prosocial content analysis and found what?
Altruism 73% featured act Average 3 acts per hour
High rate in situation comedies & kids’ shows
} In children’s programming
Prosocial: 4 incidents per hour
Violent: 14 incidents per hour
}Yearly exposure (3 hours of kids’ shows a day):
4,380 acts of altruism
15,330 acts of violence
What did Mares and Woodward find?
Media impact increases with:
More specific modeled behavior More relevant outcome measures
What are moderators of prosocial effects according to Mares and Woodard?
Interactivity with teachers and parents
SES: Stronger for high SES
Gender: Boys more "backlash" Girls more likely to select prosocial stuff, no difference over all
What is one fact about the Zone of Proximity?
To learn from media, content must be presented within “zone of proximal development”
What's the capacity model by Fish?
That children must be capable of to understand narrative and educational features
What is distance theory?
If educational content is limited to one narrative, it may limit generalizability.
What did Crawley's study find?
When watching Blue's Clues, those who were heaviest viewers had the highest attention rate
Anderson found that watching blues clues: 4 things
Increased Knowledge of show concepts, riddles
Flexible thinking, problem solving, prosocial behavior
Vocabulary: Viewers scored higher at pre-test
No difference in self esteem
The Early Learning Model:
Huston. Tried to explain long term impact of early exposure
Attitudes and behaviors.
Doesn't teach kids facts but rather how to do well in school
Media interventions in prosocial contexts
Realism v Socialism intervention
Younger children are most receptive
Nathanson's study focused on what?
Parent communication styles relevant to body image and eating disorders
Parent communication styles relevant to mediation of media content
In Nathanson's study about thin actresses, what did the results show about the different types of mediation?
Neutral mediation: increased anorexic symptoms, social comparison, neg emotions
Positive: negative emotions
Neg: increased social comparison, body dissatisfaction neg emotions
What did Back et al's study focus on?
Accurate or Idealized
What are 2 competing hypotheses and Back et al's study?
Idealized virtual identity
Extended real life
What was the method in measuring FB Profiles for Back etal?
Collect facebook profiles and personality ratings
Raters make personality judgements based on the profiles
Correlate rater’s personality judgements with self (friend) reports of ideal and actual personality
(Seinfeld study) recall v. recognition?
Recall (explicit): ability to recall from memory w/o external prompt
Recognition (implicit): Retrieving something from memory with prompts
What was the hypothesis in Terror Management Theory?
Death anxiety will increase support/loyalty for national symbols, values, and leaders
How was Mortality Salience primed?
}Explicit (e.g. write about death)
“Please briefly describe the emotions that the thought of your own death arouses in you”
“Jot down, as specifically as you can, what you think will happen to you when you die and once you are physically dead”
}Implicit (e.g. unscramble death-related words)
What does Young say about humor?
Humor may reduce critical thinking about political messages by
Reducing the listener’s ability to critically engage the message arguments
Reducing the listener’s motivation to critically engage the message arguments
Activating a discounting cue
What was young's method?
216 participants in 3 groups read 3 online questionnaires: humorous, nonhumorous, and control
They were asked their thoughts
cognitive elaboration aimed at humor comprehension.
What did young find?
Humorous content resulted in more thoughts dealing with humor comprehension
Argument scruntiny is reduced in the face of humor
What did baumgartner find?
Baumgartner found that viewing The Colbert Report (and The O’Reilly Factor) increased support for Republican policies, increased warm feeling for President Bush, increased trust in Republicans in Congress, and decreased internal efficacy
What did Holbert's study find?
Perceptions of the importance of being engaging to presidential success rose as a result of watching the program, and The West Wing viewers retained more positive images of Bush and Clinton after the viewing experience
Viewing The West Wing seems to prime more positive images of the U.S. presidency
What was LaMarre's study about?
Conservatives thought he was conservative
Liberals thought he was liberal
What was laun and braun's article about?
Seinfeld was their manipulation
What did cole and leets find were the most likely attachment styles to form parasocial relationships?
What was the least likely attachment style to form parasocial relationships?
What was the main research question in Cole and Leets study?
are attachment styles related to the formation of parasocial relationships?
What did moskalenko and heine study?
The relationship between self awareness and television.
The participants who failed watched more tv as did the control group. The successful group watched less tv
what does mares and woodard's study focus on?
More specific modeled behavior
More relevant outcome measures
What does Slater's article focus on?
Campaigns in the the context of story telling vs facts