lecture2.PNSandANS.txt

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hhc1114
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146236
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lecture2.PNSandANS.txt
Updated:
2012-04-07 13:29:14
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anatomy
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anatomy, unit 2, lecture 10, PNS & ANS
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  1. 1) What layer covers a neuron (not referring to myelin)?
    2) What layer covers a fascicle (bundle of neurons)?
    3) What layer covers a bundle of fascicles?
    • 1. Endoneurium
    • 2. Perineurium
    • 3. Epineurium
  2. What can a spinal cord injury in the cervical region mean?
    If a person has a spinal cord injury in their thoracic region, what could they have?
    • They could have quadriplegia (arms and legs paralyzed).
    • Paraplegia (just legs are paralyzed).
  3. What is the nerve that can be anesthetized during childbirth as an alternative to an epidural?
    What type of nerve block is this called?
    • PUDENDAL NERVE
    • saddle block
  4. What nerve allows the diaphragm to contract?
    If it gets severed, the person can no longer breathe without assistance.
    PHRENIC NERVE
  5. What is the major group of nerves that supply the upper limbs?
    How can someone cause damage to this major group of nerves?
    • The BRACHIAL PLEXUS
    • If a person leans their armpits on their crutches, they can damage this plexus and lose the use of their arms. The nerves in the brachial plexus change names as they go to different regions in the arm.
  6. What is the main nerve to the muscles of the anterior forearm and palm?
    What does damage to this nerve result in?
    • The median nerve.
    • Damage is called carpal tunnel syndrome, ape hand or hand of benediction
  7. What is the main nerve to the anterior thigh?
    Where does the SACRAL PLEXUS exit the spinal cord?
    • The Femoral nerve.
    • **L4-S5
  8. What is Sciatica?
    What muscle can cause Sciatica and how does it cause it?
    What is the other cause for Sciatica?
    • Irritated sciatic nerve - irritation by muscle pinch (piriformis syndrome) or a ruptured disc
    • A short, thick muscle covering the sciatic notch (piriformis), and when it contracts, it pinches on the sciatic nerve, causing irritation known as sciatica.
    • Can be alleviated by stretching exercises.
    • A herniated lumbar disc, in which case stretching exercises make it worse.
  9. What does the sciatic nerve branch out into? Where do they supply?
    • The TIBIAL and FIBULAR nerves
    • They supply the leg and foot.
  10. What nerve is damaged that produces foot drop?What is the symptom of this injury?
    • An injury to the fibular nerve.
    • Foot slap: The foot cannot be dorsi-flexed.
  11. Median nerve injury is called what?
    Ulnar nerve injury is called what?
    Radial nerve injury is called what?
    Median nerve injury is called what?
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Hand of Benediction or Ape hand
    • Ulnar nerve injury: Claw hand (cannot adduct or abduct fingers).
    • Radial nerve injury: Wrist drop
  12. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM-Functions
    Do we have voluntary control over autonomic nerves?
    • They are involved in digestion, blood flow, urination, defecation, glandular secretion.
    • Therefore, the ANS supplies the glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle, but NOT the skeletal muscle.
    • We don't have voluntary control over these nerves.
  13. What is the ANS also called and why?
    the general visceral motor system (be/c it supplies the glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle, but NOT the skeletal muscle).
  14. Types of neurons in the ANS and how it differs from the rest of the peripheral nervous system
    • The ANS has motor neurons only (there are no sensory neurons in the ANS).
    • This system differs from the rest of the peripheral nervous system in that there are two lower motor neurons in the periphery.
  15. What is the structure where the two ANS nerves come together?
    What is the proximal ANS neuron called?
    What is the distal ANS neuron called?
    Where are the cell bodies of the proximal neuron located?
    • the AUTONOMIC GANGLIA
    • The first nerve is the PRE-GANGLIONIC NEURON.
    • The second nerve is the POST-GANGLIONIC NEURON.
    • **remember these are motor nerves, so the cell bodies of the pre-ganglionic neurons are located in the anterior horn of the grey matter in the spinal cord
  16. Characteristics of the ANS motor unit:
    How many motor neurons?
    Are the axons myelinated or not?
    Is conduction slow or fast?
    Are the axons thick or thin?
    • Has more than one lower motor neuron,
    • the axons may be myelinated or unmyelinated,
    • conduction is slow,
    • the axons are thin.
  17. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION does what to the following?
    Heart rate
    Metabolic activity, blood glucose levels
    Peristalsis
    Bronchioles
    Blood flow to the skin
    Sweat
    How does the parasympathetic division differ in function from the sympathetic division?
    • Sympathetic Division:
    • inc heart rate and blood pressure,
    • inc metabolic activity (increased blood glucose),
    • decreased peristalsis (decreased food digestion)
    • dilation of bronchioles in lungs (open up)
    • decreases blood flow to the skin,
    • increases sweating.
    • *Parasympathetic is opposite of this list
  18. Are the axons of the pre-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division short or long?
    Are the axons of the post-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division short or long?
    Are the ganglia of the sympathetic division closer to the organs or closer to the vertebral column?
    Are the postganglionic fibers therefore short or long?
    • Sympathetic Division:
    • Most pre-ganglionic neurons are short.
    • Most post-ganglionic neurons are long.
    • The sympathetic nervous system Peripheralganglia. Which are further from the organsand long postganglionic fibers
  19. Are the axons of the pre-ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division short or long?
    Are the axons of the post-ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division short or long?
    Are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division closer to the organs or closer to the vertebral column?
    Are the postganglionic fibers therefore short or long?
    • Parasympathetic Division:
    • Most pre-ganglionic neurons are long.
    • Most post-ganglionic neurons are short.
    • The parasympathetic nervous system characterized by peripheral ganglia, which are near the organs and
    • Short Postganglionic fibers
  20. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION does what to the following?
    Heart rate
    Metabolic activity,
    blood glucose levels
    Peristalsis
    Bronchioles
    Blood flow to the skin
    Sweat
    • Parasympathetic Division:
    • decreased heart rate and blood pressure,
    • decreased metabolic activity (decreased blood glucose),
    • increased peristalsis (increased food digestion)
    • constriction of bronchioles in lungs
    • increases blood flow to the skin,
    • does not influence sweating.
  21. The majority of the parasympathetic outflow from the head is by which nerve?
    The majority of the parasympathetic outflow from the head is by the vagus nerve.

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