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Name the 6 SOMATIC SENSES
- Light touch (being touched by a feather), heat, cold, vibration, pressure, pain are SOMATIC SENSES.
- (Senses we feel with our bodies)
What are proprioceptors; and how is proprioception tested?
- PROPRIOCEPTORS are found in the muscles, joints, and tendons. They measure the amount of movement, force, and position of the body.
- Proprioception is often tested by having the patient close their eyes and saying if their fingers are up or down.
Are somatic senses (including pain) and proprioception considered special senses?
No. Somatic senses (including pain) and proprioception are NOT considered special senses.
Name the 5 SPECIAL SENSES.
- Smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium (balance) are SPECIAL SENSES,
- Pain is NOT a special sense.
What are unicate fits
People who experience imaginary odors have what are called unicate fits
Scientists who are trying to find a way to make neurons divide to heal nerve injuries often study the body's only mitotic neurons. These neurons are?
What could cause a person to be unable to easily taste sweet, sour, or salty substances?
- Someone with a damaged facial nerve cannot easily taste sweet, sour, or salty substances.
- (Taste buds are the only part of the nervous system that can regenerate completely).
The primary gustatory (taste) cortex is located in which lobe of the brain?
The primary gustatory (taste) cortex is located in the parietal lobe of the brain.
What is the function of the Lacrimal gland?
The lacrimal glands produce tears, which drain into the nasal cavity via the lacrimal duct. The function is to moisten and lubricate the eye surface, and it has enzymes to kill bacteria (which thrive in warm, moist conditions).
The oil component found in tears is produced by which glands?
- Tarsal glands.
- TARSAL GLANDS are sebaceous glands on the inside of the eyelid, and produce sebum, which is an oil to lubricate the eyeball.
Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another without rejection, yet corneas can be transplanted-why?
The CORNEA is avascular (no blood supply) except around the periphery. Therefore, there is no tissue rejection when it is transplanted into another person.
What is another term for the zonule?
Suspensory ligament of the lens
PRESBYOPIA (old eyes). Occurs around age 45-50. The lens cannot accommodate .With age, the lens loses flexibility, and is less likely to round up. It stays in the position for seeing far, so there is trouble focusing on things that are near.
What are cataracts?
Clouding of the lens that leads to a clinical condition known as CATARACTS.
What is the function of the iris?
As the iris constricts or dilates the pupil, it regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye.
What is the name of the region of the retina which has the highest amount of cones?
- The Fovea Centralis.
- This is a region on the retina that has the highest concentration of cones. This is the very center point of the macula.
Visual information travels from the retina deep into the brain via which pathway?
Is it visible with an opthalmascope in this region?
optic chiasma. (This is on the brain surface, therefore it is not visible with an opthalmascope).
After traveling through the optic chiasma, which section of the brain receives the visual information?
The occipital region of the brain, where the information is processed.
Which 6 structures are visible when an opthalmascope is used to look inside the eye?
- 1. optic disc
- 2. fovea centralis
- 3. macula
- 4. the lens
- 5. retina
- 6. blood vessels
What causes retinal detachment?
Does it cause blindness immediately?
Does the detached portion contain capillaries?
- Retinal detachment is usually caused by a blow to the eye.
- It does not cause blindness immediately, it takes a few hours.
- The detached portion still has some capillaries supplying oxygen for a few hours.
Why is retinal detachment considered a medical emergency?
If not lasered back into place immediately, permanent blindness can result.
- Hyperopia is when the eyes are too short.
- The person will be far-sighted. They can see far away, but cannot focus close up because of the shape of their eyeball. This is not the same as presbyopia.
What causes Myopia?
Myopia (nearsightedness) is caused by eyes which are too long. The person can see close up, but not far away.
How do hyperopia and presbyopia differ?
Hyperopia and presbyopia have some features in common, but a key difference between these two conditions is that in hyperopia the lens can accommodate, but in presbyopia it cannot
What is astigmatism?
Astigmatism is when the cornea has an irregular shape.
What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is increased pressure within the anterior chamber of the eye. It leads to blindness.
What are the 4 main conditions that cause blindness?
- Macular degeneration
- Diabetic retinopathy
What is the 20-20 rule?
- To protect your eyesight throughout your life, use the 20-20-20 rule:
- Every 20 minutes look up for 20 seconds at something 20 feet away.