Bio lab 2 study guide

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zzto
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146241
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Bio lab 2 study guide
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2012-04-09 19:45:54
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Studying Biology lab practical
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Biology lab practical 2 study guide questions
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  1. You can do it!
  2. Plant Adaptations for Land
    • Reduction in size of gametophytes
    • Increased protection of gametophytes
    • Pollination (no swimming sperm)
    • Dispersal Mechanisms: wind, water, animals
    • Vascular Tissue and Secondary Growth
    • Support: Turgor Pressure
  3. Dioecious vs. monoecious
    • Monoicous - plants which bear both sperm and
    • eggs on the same gametophyte. (male and female)
    • Dioicous -species in which gametophytes produce
    • only sperm or eggs but never both (male or female)

    What characteristics?
  4. Cycadophyta-
    dioicous
  5. Ginkgophyta-
    dioecious
  6. Phylum coniferophyta –
    monoecious
  7. Phylum gnetophyta-
    dioecious
  8. Monocots vs. Dicots
    • Monocot- ring shaped vascular bundles on roots
    • but not stems
    • Dicot- complex vascular bundle arrangement on
    • roots but not stems
  9. Monocot vs dicot
  10. Parts of a flower
  11. Different forms of fruit we looked at, how they can be moved, and fruit types
    • Simple Fruit: 1 flower, 1 pistil (nuts)
    • Multiple Fruit: Many flowers, 1 pistil each
    • Aggregate Fruit: 1 flower, many pistils
    • (strawberries)
    • Accessory Fruit/Receptacle Fruit- apple
  12. Fungi structure
    • cell walls made of chitin
    • hyphae – filamentous structure
    • mycelium – the body of a fungus
    • fruiting bodies (-carp) reproductive structures that produce spores
  13. hyphae
    • filamentous structure
    • septate: cells divided by perforated walls
    • aseptate: no walls between cells, multinucleate
  14. Basidiocarp = entire fruiting body (cap, stalk
    gills and basidia)
    entire fruiting body (cap, stalk gills and basidia)
  15. Lichens –
    mutualism between a cyanobacterium OR green alga and a fungus (Ascomycota or Basidiomycota)
  16. Mycorrhizae –
    • mutualism between a plant and a fungus
    • endomycorrhizae: fungal hyphae penetrate root cells
    • ectomycorrhizae: fungal hyphae outside root
    • cells
  17. Fungi economic uses-
    Edible mushrooms, cheese, wine, beer, bread… sources of antibiotics e.g. Penicillin
  18. Symmetry
    • Asymmetry (sponge)
    • Radial symmetry (jelly fish)
    • Bilateral symmetry (flatworm)
  19. Tissue layers
    • Endoderm (inner layer)
    • Mesoderm (middle layer)
    • Ectoderm (outer layer)
    • -Diploblastic: only 2 layers ( Endoderm and ectoderm)
    • -Triploblastic: all 3 layers present
  20. Ginkgo Biloba
    • Living fossil as they only live in areas where
    • cultivated
    • Male trees are popular street trees as female
    • trees produce seeds with rank oders
    • Only species in phylum
  21. • Pinus sp.
    • Phylum Coniferophyta
    • o Pinus o Evergreens such as cedar, juniper, and spruceo Leaves modified
    • o Needles
    • o Resin
    • o Monoecious
  22. • Chytrid fungi,
    o mostly aquatic (f/w & marine)o many are parasitic on protists, plants and animalso flagellated zoospores and gametes
  23. • Planaria,
    • o Part of phylum Platyhelminthes (flat worms)
    • o Eyespots: phototaxis
    • o Regeneration: asexual reproduction
  24. • Nidaria,
    • o jellyfish, Aquatic (most marine)
    • o Diploblastic: sac with single opening
    • o 2 body plan variations
    • Medusa: free-floating Polyp: sessile (Mouth on bottom) (Mouth on top)
  25. • chelicerata, subphylum
    • cephalothorax + abdomen
    • All appendages attached to cephalothorax
    • No antennae
    • Horseshoe crab•
    • Heavily armored carapace•
    • Telson: tail-like appendage•
    • 4 additional pairs of appendages•
    • Book gills: fan back and forth
  26. arachnia
    • a class
    • 4 pairs of walking legs
    • Spiders:
    • fangs for injecting venom
    • Pedicel: where cephalothorax meets abdomen
    • Spinnerets: produce silk
    • Book Lungs
    • Scorpions:
    • Abdomen subdivided (more obviously segmented)
    • Stinger: subdue prey, defense
  27. crustacea
    • Primarily aquatic (mostly marine)
    • Characterized by jointed appendages
    • head, thorax, and abdomen
    • Many molt through different body stages
    • Examples: copepods, crayfish, lobsters, crabs,
    • shrimp, barnacles
  28. centipedes,
    • Class Chilopoda (Centipedes)
    • Predators on small invertebrates
    • 1st pair of legs: fang-like appendages
    • Each segment has one pair of legs
  29. millipedes
    • Subphylum Uniramia
    • Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
    • Harmless decomposers
    • Feed mainly on decaying vegetation
    • Emit foul-smelling secretion when
    • threatened
    • Each segment has 2 pairs of legs
  30. Angio sperm are mostly
    sporophyte dominant
  31. Leaf composition and function
    • Epidermis: waxy cuticle prevents water loss
    • Stomata: allow gas and water vapor exchange with
    • mesophyll
    • Controlled by guard cells via turgor pressure
    • Parenchyma Cells: Site of photosynthesis
    • Eudicots: differentiated into palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma

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