Abnormalities of CNS (exam 4)

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rcrchick
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14628
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Abnormalities of CNS (exam 4)
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2010-04-15 11:45:57
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exam4 abnormalties of CNS
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exam4 abnormalties of CNS
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  1. damaged upper motor component of motor nervous system (injury or disease)
    spastic paralysis
  2. results in increased muscle tone in the limbs
    -causes varying degrees of muscle spasticity
    spastic paralysis
  3. person experiences exaggerated spinal reflexes
    spastic paralysis
  4. individual will have a positive Babinski
    spastic paralysis
  5. damage to lower motor component of motor nervous system
    (injury or disease)
    flaccid paralysis
  6. no voluntary or reflex contraction of the muscles innervated
    flaccid paralysis
  7. therefore loss of muscle tone and eventual atrophy
    flaccid paralysis
  8. result of untreated syphilis-> Treponema pallidum (bacteria responsible)
    tabes dorsalis
  9. chronic and progressice degeneration of posterior funiculi (columns) and dorsal roots of spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia
    tabes dorsalis
  10. have motor funtion but lose sensory input (proprioception) which is critical for coordinated voluntary muscle activity
    tabes dorsalis
  11. therefore results in poor muscle coordination and muscle weakness including poor balance and posture.
    tabes dorsalis
  12. viral caused
    infantile paralysis- poliomyelitis
  13. damages neurons in the anterior gray horn and motor nuclei of cranial nerves
    infantile paralysis-poliomyelitis
  14. results in motor paralysis with no sensory dysfunction
    infantile paralysis-poliomyelitis
  15. caused by patchy demyelination in many areas of CNS-> produces plaques associated with:
    a. disappearance of oligodendrocytes and
    b. proliferation of astrocytes
    multiple sclerosis
  16. may be cyclic (symptoms, recovery, symptoms, recovery, etc)
    multiple sclerosis
  17. some nerve fibers recover- with no permanent damage-> but damage is progressice with each recurring cycle
    multiple sclerosis
  18. both motor and sensory dysfunction occur
    multiple sclerosis
  19. this is one of the most common disorders of the CNS
    multiple sclerosis
  20. more common in elderly
    parkinsonism ( parkinsons disease)
  21. caused by diffuse inflammation of CNS accompanied by lack of dopamine
    parkinsonism (parkinsons disease)
  22. associated with degeneration of basal nuclei
    parkinsonism (parkinsons disease)
  23. results in rigidity and tremors-> especially extremities and face
    --rigidity causes a mask-like face
    parkinsonism(parkinsons disease)

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