Ecology Study Cards

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  2. What are biotic factors?
    Living parts of an ecosystem
  3. What are some examples of biotic factors?
    • Examples:
    • grass, plants, hawks, ferrets, badgers, eagles, worms, fungi, bacteria.
  4. What are abiotic factors?
    Nonliving parts of an ecosystem
  5. What are some abiotic factor examples?
    H20, sunlight, Oxygen, & soil.
  6. Photosynthesis requires abiotic factors. What are some of these necessary factors?
    Water, sunlight & CO 2
  7. What is a community?
    All of the different populations that live together in an area
  8. What are the levels of organization, or progression, of an ecosystem?
    • OPCE:
    • Organism---Population---Community---Ecosystem
  9. What study of how living things interact w/ea. Other& w/their environment?
  10. What is the place where an organism lives and that provides the things the organism needs?
  11. What is an organism’s particular role, or how it makes its living?
  12. What is the reason for competition in an ecosystem?
    What are some examples ?
    The struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat w/limited resources A hawk and elf owl living in saguaro at different times of day.
  13. What is an organism that does the killing?
  14. What is an organism that is killed?
  15. What is the interaction in which one organism kills and eats another?
  16. What is a close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species?
  17. A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefits

    • Examples: mammal intestines and bacteria or a saguaro cactus and long-eared bats
  18. What is a plant or an organism that can produce its own food?
  19. What is an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms?
    • a consumer
    • examples: caterpillars/cattle/deer

  20. What is a onsumers that eat plants?
    • herbivore
    • caterpillars/cattle/deer

  21. What is a meat eater?
  22. What is a consumer that eats both plants and animals?
  23. What is a carnivore that feeds on bodies of dead organisms?
  24. What are organisms that break down wastes & dead organisms & return the raw materials to the environment? Some of these like fungi, molds, bacteria & mushrooms return simple molecules to the environment which can be used again by other organisms.
  25. What is a series of events in which one organism eats another & obtains energy?
    food chain
  26. What consists of many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem/Organism’s have a much greater chance of survival if they are part of a food web, as a more diverse diet exists.
    food web
  27. What displays the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web? Most of the energy is available at the producer level Each level beyond the producer level has less energy than the level before it.
    Energy pyramid
  28. What is the continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere & back? (H20 on Earth is warmed, evaporates into water vapor, rises, cools, condenses, becomes saturated and precipitates. Accumulation of water on Earth and then the cycle repeats itself)
    water cycle
  29. What is a group of ecosystems w/similar climates & organisms?
  30. What is an area that receives less than 25 cm rain/yr?
  31. What biome is an area that receives bwt. 25-75 cm rain/yr populated w/grasses & other woody plants?
  32. What forest biome has trees that shed leaves/5-6 month growing season/varying temps?
  33. What is a cold, dry land biome/not deep snow falling/lots permafrost all year?
  34. What are materials produced in homes, businesses, schools, etc, like paper, empty packages, and food scraps?
    solid wastes
  35. What are methods of handling solid waste?
    • 1. bury it in landfills
    • 2. burn it (incineration)
    • 3. recycle it
  36. What four major forms of recycling products?
    • 1. paper
    • 2. plastic
    • 3. metal
    • 4. glass
  37. What can you do to control the solid waste problem?
    • (3 R’s)
    • 1. reduce
    • 2. reuse
    • 3. recycle
  38. What is the process of helping the natural decomposition processes break down many forms of waste?
  39. Material that can be harmful to human health or the environment if it is not properly disposed of?
    hazardous waste
  40. What are some types of hazardous wastes?
    Toxic, explosive, flammable, corrosive or radioactive
  41. What is a change to the atmosphere that has harmful effects?
    air pollution
  42. What are some causes of air pollution?
    Factories/smokestacks/power plants/vehicle emissions/natural causes like a volcano
  43. Particles & gases that are released into the air from vehicles
  44. Why is so little water available for people to use on earth?
    1. 97% of the water on Earth is salt which is not good for drinking or watering crops 2. ¾ of fresh water available is ice 3. water is not always close to where people live 4. some water near people’s homes may not be clean/is polluted
  45. What is water stored in layers of soil & rock beneath Earth’s surface?
    ground water
  46. What is an area in which water, sediments & dissolved materials drain to a common outlet, such as a river, lake, bay, or ocean?
    water shed
  47. The three major CT rivers, The Connecticut, Housatonic and Thames Rivers, all spill into what large body of water below our state?
    Long Island Sound
  48. Why does most pollution on earth occur?
    human behavior or activity
  49. What is sewage? Why is it so dangerous?
    Water and human wastes that are washed down toilets, sinks, & showers If not treated to kill disease-causing organisms, they quickly multiply& people very ill.
  50. How can fertilizers pollute water?
    These chemicals that provide nutrients for plants/crops to grow better can wash into bodies of water and make algae grow too rapidly. This algae blocks the light needed for photosynthesis.
  51. What are chemicals that kill crop-destroying organisms such as beetles or worms?
  52. What are some of the ways humans pollute water in the U.S.?
    • 1. agriculture 5. oil spills 9.fertilizers
    • 2. industry 6. sewage 10.hazardous wastes
    • 3. construction 7. heat
    • 4. mining 8. pesticides
  53. How can bodies of water be polluted by natural causes, such as the result of the water cycle?
    Water from rain or storms may can cause harm to bodies of water. During the water cycle, water vapor cools causing it to condense on foreign particles (acids from emissions/vocanic ash/pollen/dust, etc.) When clouds become saturated precipitation occurs. During this stage of the water the cycle, gravity may pull pollutants to the ground. Accumulated precipitation also contributes to contaminants on the ground being picked up by flowing water. Sewage, hazardous wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, agricultural wastes and construction debris can be transported into clean bodies of water causing pollution/unsafe aquatic conditions.
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Ecology Study Cards
Ecology Unit Benchmark Review
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