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1st sight- A decrepit old man leaning on his staff as he walked.
2nd sight- A sick man suffering in pain and soiled by incontinence brought on by his infeebled condition.
3rd- sight- A human corpse being carried to a funeral pyre.
4th sight- A calm, ascetic monk with a clean shaven head wearing a yellw robe.
The sum of those images struck Sidhartha with the force of a revelation: All humans are subject to suffering.
Transformed by the insight, he dcided to leave home in search of a solution to the problem of human suffering. Thus began what is known as "the Great Renunciation". Sidhartha's abdication of a princely life in favor of one as a wandering ascetic in selfless denial of material possesions.
Quest for Truth
- Sage Alara Kalama thought him to achieve the "realm of nothingless'.
- Then consulted another Hindu Teacher who thought him to attain the realm of "neither perception nor norperception".
- Then he turned from Hindu philosophic meditation to severe bodily austerity in his search for absolute truth.
- After a short period of wandering, he found a village near Uruvela(modern Gaya) where he was joined by a group of five acetic.
- In the company of that group, Sidgartha subjected himself ti a regimen of extreme austerity.
- He spent the night under the tree in deep meditation. As he passed through deeper and deeper states of consciousness, he was transported by visions to his former existences. With the insights born of that knowledge, he suddenly understood the cause and the cycle of REBIRTH.. Thus at the age of 35, Sidhartha attained enlightment and became the suppreme Buddha.
- He resolver the conflict by means of an analogy to a lotus pond, in which some lotuses remain under water, some float on the surface and some rise obove it. In a similar way Buddha decided human differ in their capacity to comprehend the cosmic truth or Dharma
Early Teachings SANGHA - Monastic Community
- He founde his 5 ascetic companion that before have abandoner him.
- Then he delivered his first discourse, whereupon his five ascetic companions became his five diciples and founding members of the SANGHA, or Monastic order, community.
- Buddha now devoted his time preaching his new doctrine.
- He soon had sixty Ashats, or perfected disciples.
- Buddha commisioned them to travel all over India and into the world beyond to spread his message of peace, truth, and compassion. He remained in India and converted leading ascetics and leaders of influence, including rulers. As the number of his follwers increased, monasteries were built for Buddha and his Sangha in every important city of India, including monasteries in Savatthi and Jetanana.
Schools of Buddhim
THERAVADA (Way of the Elders)
Teachings of the first Buddha only.
- othodox wing of the movememnt, represents the early group of school of Buddhism.covering SOUTHERN INDIA-( Sri-Lanka(formelly Ceylon), Burma, Thailand, and Combodia.
- Is sometimes called the Southern School.
- Until reently, the Theravada was known in the West by its generic name "Hinayana"
The central figure in Theravaada is the monk, whose ideal is to attain nirvana, Monastic discipline and solitary are the rule. With shaven head and yellow robe.
- When Theravada buddhists speak of their Master,they are referring to the human Buddha of flesh and blood, not to the manifestation in human form of an eternal essence. Theravada Buddhists regard Buddha as the great enlightened man- but stills only a man. By practicing ditachment, Buddha simply pioneered and fullfilled his quest for Nirvana, and anyone can follow his lead. By accepting the homeless stqate, each individual can attain the same liberation through effort and self-discipline.
- To attain Nirvana, each individual must soner or later renounce wordlu pursuits and enter the homeless stateof a monk. The alternative is consignment to an eternal cycle of rebirth.
Schools of Buddhim
THERAVADA - Scriptures
- Theravada Buddhism consists of three collections known as the Tripitaka.
- 1- Sutras
Schools of Buddhism
- Spread to Asia.
- Mahayana Buddhisms regard Budha as an incarnation of the eternal Buddha essence that has in all ages and in innumerable worlds for the liberation of all sentient beings. They claim Buddha posponed his entrance to Nirvana in order to help others attain it too. Mahayana Buddhists believe that an individual can aspire to nirvana without accepting the homeless state of a monk. This liberal attitude contributed to the gradual development of many sets and versions of Buddhist belief .
- Bodhisattva- one who, out of compassion for the welfare of others, delays his entry into nirvana.
Buddhist Tantrism is fundamentally nonspeculative: aspirants must experience numerous yoga stages before achieving enlightment. Nirvana is seen as one side of the polarity. The other side is Karuna(compassion) ammanating from the bodhisattvas, whose help is solicited through appropriate rituals.
- Mudra- various symbolic gestures made by the hands and fingers.
- mantra- formulas of an esoteric nature based on scientific knowledge of the occult power of sound.
- Mandala- visual aidsm asuch as picture charts, diagrams and magical circles, designed to help the devotee acquire a mystical union with the particular Bohisattva.