Card Set Information

2012-04-08 00:30:01
Lab Tech

Lab Tech
Show Answers:

  1. What are arthropods?
    insects and arachnids
  2. What are the different insects?
    • flies
    • mosquitoes
    • gnats
    • fleas
    • lice
  3. What are the different arachnids?
    • mites
    • ticks
    • spiders
  4. What are the body parts of an insect?
    head, thorax, abdomen
  5. What are the body parts of an arachnid?
    • cephalothorax
    • abdomen
  6. How many legs do insects have?
  7. How many legs do adult arachnids have?
  8. What are the life stages of an insect?
    • egg
    • larva
    • pupa
    • adult
  9. What are the life stages of an arachnid?
    • egg
    • larva
    • nymph
    • adult
  10. What problems do ectoparasites cause?
    • trasmit infectious agents
    • cause local infections
    • annoy animals
    • damage hide of fleece
    • initiate allergic reactions
    • produce paralytic toxins
    • anemia
  11. How big are mites?
  12. Where do mites live?
    on skin surface, hair follicles, ear canals
  13. What do mites eat?
    suck lymph
  14. What is lymph?
    water component of blood
  15. What can mites cause?
  16. Do mites live their entire lives on the host?
  17. Who can get mites?
    • dogs
    • cats
    • rabbits
    • ferrets
    • birds
    • exotics
    • humans
    • large animals
  18. What are the common types of mites?
    • Sarcoptes
    • Demodex
    • Cheyletielal
    • Otodectes
    • Psoroptes
    • Chorioptes
  19. Who can sarcoptic mange affect?
    • dogs
    • rabbits
    • sheep
    • goats
    • cattle
    • swine
    • horses
    • humans
  20. Is scarcoptic mange itchy?
    very pruritic
  21. What is another name for Sarcoptic mange?
  22. How long is sarcoptes life cycle?
    17 - 21 days
  23. Which sarcoptic mange is most common in dogs?
    Sarcoptes scabei
  24. Why is sarcoptes very itchy?
    burrow deep in the skin to lay eggs which can be very itchy
  25. On what part of the body does sarcoptic mange start and where does it progress to?
    usually begins on the head and progresses to the limbs and then to the entire body
  26. How do we diagnosis sarcoptes?
    • multiple skin scrapings (elbows, ears) - at leas 8 to 10
    • scrape until it bleeds
    • response to tx
  27. How do we treat sarcoptes?
    • high dose of ivermectin every 2 weeks PO
    • Selamectin (repeat every 2 weeks)
    • Lime sulfur dips every few days
  28. What animal is Demodex canis common in?
  29. Is Demodex canis normal flora in dogs?
    • yes
    • live in hair follicles
  30. How do we diagnose Demodex canis?
    deep skin scraping - pinch skin to squeeze out of follicles
  31. Is demodectic mange pruritic?
  32. What causes demodectic mange to be pruritc?
    secondary infections
  33. What is localized demodectic mange?
    just in one spot - looks like a bald spot
  34. What is generalized demodecctic mange?
    all over the body - very bad!
  35. Where on the body do we usually see localized demodicosis?
    face and feet
  36. How long does it take for localized demodicosis to heal?
    within 8 weeks
  37. Is localized demodicosis pruritic?
  38. Who is localized demodicosis common in?
  39. What is another name for localized demodicosis?
    red mange
  40. Is generalized demodicosis severe?
  41. What does generalized demodicosis usually indicate?
    heritable immune deficiency
  42. What can cause generalized demodicosis to be pruritic?
    secondary bacterial and yeast infections
  43. Are secondary bacterial and yeast infections common with generalized demodicosis?
  44. Can humans get demodex?
  45. How do we treat demodex in dogs?
    • Mitaban dips (Amitraz)
    • alpha 2 agonist
    • air dry, can't towel off
  46. What precautions do we need to take when using Mitaban dips?
    wear gloves
  47. What age in dogs can we start using Mitaban dips to treat demodex?
    older than 4 months old
  48. How should we use Mitaban dips with toy breeds?
  49. Should we use Mitaban dips in cats?
  50. What is another name for Cheyletiella?
    walking dandruff
  51. Is Cheyletiella contagious?
  52. Who can Cheyletiella infect?
    • dog
    • cat
    • rabbit
    • human
  53. Where on the body do we usually see Cheyletiella?
    along the back and ears
  54. How do we diagnose Cheyletiella?
    • tape to scales and then tape on a microscope slide to see on low power
    • occasionally will find in cat feces due to grooming
  55. Does Cheyletiella spend its entire life cycle on a host?
  56. What is the treatment for Cheyletiella?
    • Prethrins (for host and environment)
    • Ivermectin
    • Selamectin (Revolution)
    • Lime sulfur dip
  57. Is Notedres cati common?
    no, it's rare
  58. What animal does Notoedres cati affect?
  59. What is another name for Notedres cati?
    cat scabies
  60. What parts of the body does Notedres cati affect?
    • ears
    • dorsal neck
    • face
    • paws
  61. Is Notoedres cati pruritic?
  62. Is Notoedres cati contagious?
  63. Other than cats, what animals can Notoedres cati affect?
    • dogs
    • rodents
    • rabbits
    • humans
  64. How is Notoedres cati diagnosed?
    • deep skin scrape
    • fecal
  65. How is Notoedres cati treated?
    • Selamectin
    • Ivermectin
  66. What causes Trombiculiasis?
  67. How do animals get Trombiculiasis?
    picked up in fields and woods (tall grass)
  68. What can Trombiculiasis bites cause?
  69. What months do we normally see Trombiculiasis?
    July - Sept
  70. How do we diagnose Trombiculiasis?
  71. What is another name for Otodectes cynotis?
    ear mites
  72. What animals do Otodectes cynotis affect?
    • dogs
    • cats
    • ferrets
  73. Is Otodectes cynotis contagious?
  74. Is Otodectes cynotis itchy?
    yes, bilateral pruritus (both ears)
  75. What is exudate?
    black goo (wast product of mites and oil glands)
  76. Does Otodectes cynotis cause exudate?
  77. Does Otodectes cynotis cause thickening of the ears?
  78. How do we diagnose Otodectes cynotis?
    • Otoscope (white mites and motile)
    • Exudate smear
    • Often see secondary infection
  79. How long is the life cycle of Otodectes cynotis?
    18 - 21 days from egg to adult
  80. How do we treat Otodectes cynotis?
    • Topicals: pyrethroids, mineral oil, thiabendazole
    • Macrolides: Acarexx (ivermectin), Revolution (selamectin), Ivomec (ivermectin not labeled, do not use in ears)
  81. What is Psoroptes?
    scab mange in ruminants
  82. On what part of the body do we normally see Psoroptes?
    • withers
    • neck
    • rump in cows
    • base of mane and tail of horses
    • ear mite of rabbits
  83. Is Psoroptes reportable?
    yes, when seen in cattle
  84. Which species is Psoroptes common in?
  85. Do we see Psoroptes in dogs and cats?
  86. What is Chorioptes?
    foot & tail mites
  87. How do horses get Chorioptes?
    infest pasterns
  88. How do cattle get Chorioptes?
    infest heels, tail region
  89. What are the clinical signs of Chorioptes in horses?
    stamping and kicking
  90. What are the clinical signs of Chorioptes in cattle?
    • coagulated serous crusts
    • may wrinkle, not very itchy
  91. How do we treat Chorioptes?
  92. What do ticks do?
    suck blood
  93. What is another term for tick infestation?
  94. What do ticks do?
    carry disease
  95. What can ticks cause?
    tick paralysis
  96. How many hosts do ticks require?
    1, 2, or 3
  97. What diseases can ticks carry?
    • rocky mountain spotted fever
    • ehrlichia
    • borrelia (lyme)
    • babesia
    • tutaremia
    • large animal diseases (piroplasmosis, anaplasma, q-fever, borreliosis, anemia, potomac fever)
  98. What are hard body ticks?
  99. What are soft body ticks?
  100. What is the life cycle of ticks?
    • egg
    • larva
    • nymph
    • adult
  101. How long do ticks life cycle last?
    can last 3 years
  102. Where do ticks live?
    in fields and woods
  103. What are the different types of Ixodidae?
    • Dermacentor
    • Rhipicephalus
    • Ixodes
    • Amblyomma
  104. What is the 3-host tick?
    larva and nymph form of dermacentor in rodents
  105. What animals do the adult Dermacentor live on?
    • dogs
    • horse
    • human
  106. What is another name for the Dermacentor variabilis?
    American dog tick
  107. Where is the Dermacentor variabilis common?
    Eastern US
  108. What is Dermacentor variabilis a vector for?
    • RMSF
    • Anaplasma
    • Cytauxzoon
  109. What is another name for Rhipicephalus sanguineus?
    Brown dog tick
  110. How many eggs do female brown dog ticks lay?
  111. Where can we find brown dog ticks?
    in cracks in ceilings
  112. What is another name for Ixodes?
    • black-legged tick
    • deer tick
  113. What animals do deer ticks infect?
    mammals and birds
  114. What are deer ticks a common vector for?
    lyme disease
  115. What is another name for Amblyomma americanum?
    lone star tick
  116. Which tick is the most common in this area?
    Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick)
  117. What is another name for Otobius megnini?
    • spinose ear tick
    • soft-bodied tick
  118. How long can Otobius megnini live in a hosts ear?
    1 year
  119. What are the 2 types of lice?
    sucking and chewing
  120. Lice can't live off the host for _____ days.
    more than 3
  121. What is another name for lice infestation?
  122. What are lice eggs called?
  123. How long is a lice's life cycle?
    3 - 4 weeks
  124. How are lice spread?
    direct contact
  125. What are the usual conditions for an animal contracting lice?
    • poor husbandry
    • worse in winter (because animals will crowd together more in the winter which causes more direct contact)
  126. What can sucking lice cause?
    • anemia
    • spread disease
  127. What do lice look like?
    • flat
    • wingless
  128. What is Haematopinus asini?
    • sucking louse of horses
    • feeds on blood
  129. What is Bovicola bovis?
    • chewing louse of cattle
    • feeds on sloughed epidermis (dander)
  130. What is Felicola subrostratus?
    cat chewing louse
  131. How do we treat lice?
    • macrolides
    • dips, dusts, pour-ons
    • must all treat all members of a herd simultaneously
  132. What is Ctenocephalides felis?
  133. How many species of fleas are there?
    more than 1500
  134. Can fleas cause pruritus?
  135. Do fleas suck blood? If so what problem does this cause?
    • yes
    • anemia
  136. How many days is a fleas life cycle?
    about 16 days in optimum conditions
  137. What are the optimum conditions for a flea?
    • 65 - 80 degrees
    • high humidity
    • vibrations
  138. How many eggs do female fleas lay?
    over 100
  139. When do flea larvae hatch?
    from 1 week to years (can stay dormant for years)
  140. What do flea larvae feed on?
    organic debris
  141. How long do flea larvae feed?
    1 week - 200 days
  142. How long does it take for a flea to molt to a pupa?
    10 days to 50 weeks
  143. How long can adult fleas live?
    1 year
  144. How long do flea eggs survive in the environment?
  145. What is the treatment for fleas?
    • Spot on treatments: Imidacloprids (advantage), fipronil (frontline), selamectin (revolution), permethrin
    • Environmental control
  146. How many species of mosquitoes are there?
    over 2,000
  147. What are mosquitoes?
    blood suckers
  148. Where do mosquitoes lay eggs?
    in still water
  149. How long is the life cycle of a mosquito?
    7 - 16 days
  150. What mosquitoes are parasitic?
    only female
  151. What is myiasis?
    tissue infested by fly larvae
  152. What are the two different types of myiasis?
    • Facultative
    • Obligatory
  153. What are facultative myiasis?
    fly larvae free-living- "fly-strike"
  154. What are facultative myiasis associated with?
    skin wounds
  155. Which flys are facultative myiasis?
    • blow fly
    • flesh fly
    • housefly
  156. What is fly strike?
  157. What kinds of animals usually get maggots?
    unattended pets in an outdoor environment
  158. Where on the body do maggots usually infest?
  159. What is the treatment for maggots?
    numb, clip, flush, medicate
  160. What is obligatory myiasis?
  161. What is another name for cochliomyia?
    screw worm fly
  162. Screw worm fly larvae must _____.
  163. Where do screw worm fly lay eggs?
    in fresh wounds
  164. What do larvae do in the fresh wounds?
    hatch, eat, then drop out
  165. What are Cuterebra?
  166. Where do warbles live?
    neck, chest, dorsum
  167. What do warbles create?
    breathing pore
  168. What are other names of Cuterebra?
    • rodent bot
    • rabbit bot
  169. What animals do warbles affect?
    • rodent
    • rabbit
    • dog
    • cat
    • humans
  170. What is the life cycle of warbles?
    • flys lay eggs on ground
    • larvae hatch
    • enter body orifice or laceration
    • migrate to SQ and mature for one month in SQ cysts
  171. What is the treatment for warbles?
    • surgical removal
    • careful warbles don't get squished bc may cause histamine release which can cause anaphylaxis
  172. What is hypoderma lineatum?
    heel flies
  173. What are other names for Hypoderma lineatum?
    cattle grubs, warbles
  174. What is the difference between Cuterebra and Hypoderma lineatum?
    Cuterebra create a breathing pore and Hypoderma lineatum do not
  175. How long does it take for Hypoderma lineatum take to migrate?
    4 - 5 months
  176. Where do Hypoderma lineatum migrate to?
  177. What do Hypoderma lineatum do after they migrate?
    chew out, drop to ground, molt, grow, pupate, turn into flies
  178. What do Hypoderma lineatum cause?
    hide damage, stampeding
  179. Why is the timing for treating Hypoderma lineatum important?
    can cause paralysis or bloat if they are killed while migrating over the rumen
  180. What are Oestrus ovis?
    sheep and goat nasal bot flies
  181. What are the clinical signs of Oestrus ovis?
    • sneezing
    • stamping feet
    • shaking heads
    • loss of condition due to decreased grazing
    • neuroloigical
    • huddling in circle with noses to ground
  182. What are biting flies?
    pests to animals
  183. What problems can biting flies cause?
    • painful bites
    • annoy animals
    • blood loss
    • mechanical disease vectors
    • biological disease vectors (intermediate hosts)
  184. What are the two types of Tabanids?
    • deerflies
    • horseflies
  185. What do deerflies look like?
    • yellowish with dark body
    • larger than houseflies
  186. What do horseflies look like?
    • vary in color and size
    • larger than deerflies
  187. When do Tabanids have blood meals?
    3 - 4 days
  188. What do tabanids prefer?
    thick vegetation
  189. What is the life cycle of tabanids?
    • larvae over winter
    • pupate in spring
  190. What Tabanids only feed on blood?
    only females
  191. What is Simulium?
  192. Where do blackflies lay eggs?
    in moving water
  193. How often do blackflies have blood meals?
    every 3 - 5 days
  194. What do blackflies cause?
    • pruritus
    • annoyance
  195. What are Culicoides?
    • no-see-ums
    • gnats
    • biting midges
  196. Where are Culicoides active?
    twilight and night
  197. Where are Culicoide larvae?
    in water
  198. What do Culicoides cause?
    • painful bites
    • suck blood
  199. What is sweet itch?
    hypersensitivity to bites of no-see-ums or blackflies
  200. When do we usually see sweet itch?
    in summer
  201. Whats another name for sweet itch?
    queensland itch
  202. What do Culicoides carry?
    Onchocerca microfilaria
  203. Where do adult Onchocerciasis live?
    in adults nuchal ligaments
  204. What does Onchocerciasis cause?
    alopecia and depigmentation on face, chest, withers, abdomen
  205. What are horn flies?
    haemotobia irritans
  206. Which fly is the greatest economical loss?
    horn flies
  207. What are house flies?
    Musca domestica
  208. What do house flies look like?
    yellow lateral abdomen
  209. Where do house flies larvae develop?
    in manure
  210. What is Musca autumnalis?
    face flies
  211. What do face flies look like?
    • Female: black sided abdomen
    • Male: orange sided abdomen
  212. Where are face fly larvae?
    in fresh cow feces
  213. What do face flies transmit?
  214. What is Stomoxys calcitrans?
    stable flies
  215. What do stable flies look like?
    look like face and house flies
  216. Where do stable flies bite?
    legs and abdomen
  217. What is Habronemiasis?
    • summer sores in horses
    • nonhealing sorres
  218. How do horses get summer sores?
    • house and stable flies carry parasite and deposit larvae
    • larvae migrate lower legs, medial canthus, and prepuce
  219. What are gastrophilus?
  220. What do botflies look like?
    resemble bees
  221. Where do botflies lay eggs?
    • on horses legs
    • one species lay them in the nose
  222. Where do botfly larva migrate?
    mouth and murrow in tongue, gingiva, and cheek
  223. What happens to botflies if they are swallowed?
    • stay as larvae and grow for 10 months
    • passed in feces
    • pupate in environment in 3 - 5 weeks
  224. What are Melophagus ovinus?
    Sheep keds
  225. What is another name for sheep keds?
    wingless flies
  226. Sheep keds are a permanent ecotparasite of what species?
    sheep and goats
  227. What do sheep keds cause?
    anemia (from sucking blood), pruritus, damage to wool
  228. When are sheep keds a problem?
    in colder months

  229. What kind of tick is this?
    • Amblyomma americanum
    • lone star tick

  230. What kind of ticks are these?
    • Dermacentor variabilis
    • American dog tick

  231. What kind of fly is this?
    • Simulium
    • blackflies

  232. What kind of lice is this?
    chewing lice

  233. What kind of lice is this?
    chewing lice

  234. What kind of mite is this?
    • Cheyletiella
    • walking dandruff

  235. What kind of mite is this?

  236. What kind of mite is this?

  237. What kind of fly is this?
    • Tabanids
    • deerfly

  238. What is this?

  239. What is wrong with this puppy?
    It has localized demodicosis

  240. What is this?

  241. What kind of ticks are these?
    • Dermacentor
    • American dog tick

  242. What kind of fly is this?
    • Musca autumnalis
    • face fly

  243. What is this?
    • Felicola subrostratus
    • cat chewing lice

  244. What is this?
    a flea

  245. What kind of fly is this?
    • Tabanid
    • horse fly

  246. What kind of fly is this?
    • Musca domestica
    • house fly

  247. What kind of tick is this?
    • Ixodes
    • black legged tick

  248. What is this?

  249. What kind of mite is this?
    • Notoedres cati
    • cat scabies

  250. What kind of mite is this?
    • Otodectes cynotis
    • ear mite

  251. What is this?
    • Otodectes cynotis egg
    • ear mite egg

  252. What is this?
    • Psoroptes
    • scab mange in ruminants, ear mite of rabbits

  253. What kind of tick is this?
    • Rhipicephalus sanguineus
    • brown dog tick

  254. What is this?

  255. What is this?
    • Melophagus ovinus
    • sheep ked

  256. What kind of fly is this?
    stable fly

  257. What kind of lice is this?
    sucking lice

  258. What is this?
    • Trombiculiasis
    • chigger

  259. What is this?