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  1. How many times does a healthy adult male's heart beat in a minute?
  2. What is the cardiac output?
    how much blood is pumped from one ventricle per minute
  3. Where is the heart?
    in the mediastinum and posterior to the sternum
  4. Which atrium is positioned more anterior?
  5. What is the fibrous sac that holds the heart called?
  6. What are the two portions of the pericardium?
    • outer is called fibrous pericardium
    • inner is called serous pericardium, which has inner parietal layer and outer visceral layer (also called the epicardium)
  7. What is inflammation or bleeding the in the pericardial cavity called?
    • cardiac tamponade
    • characterized by pulsus paradoxus, jugular vein distention, and falling blood pressure
  8. Where do heart attacks occur?
    in the myocardial layer (myocardial infarction)
  9. What is the flat like extension of the anterior portion of each atrium called?
  10. Where is fibrous skeleton in the heart?
    in between the atria and ventricles, which provides electrical insulation
  11. What three veins enter into the right atrium?
    • inferior vena cava
    • superior vena cava
    • coronary sinus
  12. What is the area between the right and left atrium called and what is there in a fetus?
    • interatrial septum
    • fossa ovalis
  13. What seperates the right atrium and ventricle?
    tricuspid valve
  14. What wall is formed between the two ventricles?
    intraventricular septum
  15. What are the muscular ridges in the ventricles called?
    trabeculae carnae
  16. What holds the valves in the heart from folding in on themselves?
    chordae tendinae, which are anchored by papillary muscles
  17. What valve is at the end of the right ventricle?
    pulmonary semilunar valve
  18. How do the semilunar valves close?
    fill and close from blood trying to backflow
  19. What valve seperates the left atrium and ventricle?
    tricuspid or mitral valve
  20. How much thicker is the left ventricle than the right?
  21. What arteries branch out from the aorta immediately after leaving the heart?
    coronary arteries
  22. What is an inadequate supply of oxygen and blood to a part of the body called?
  23. What are the two types of ischemia in the heart?
    • silent myocardial ischemia
    • angina pectoris
  24. What is an abnormally increased heart rate called?
  25. What is abnormally low blood pressure called?
  26. How is a heartbeat initiated?
    through fibers of the sinoatrial node
  27. Where do SA node impules travel?
    to the atrioventricular node
  28. Where do impulses travel after the AV node?
    to the AV bundle, also called the bundle of His
  29. What fibers receive impulses at the end of the heart?
    purkinje fibers
  30. What nerve fibers carry out sympathetic innervation?
  31. What nerve fibers carry out parasympathetic innervations?
    medulla oblongata via the left and right vagus nerves
  32. What is a very slow heartbeat condition called?
  33. What is the purpose of the foramen ovale?
    as an embryo, lungs aren't used, so it's shifted to left atrium through septum primum
  34. What is is called if the foramen ovale doesn't close properly?
    patent foramen ovale, perforated fossa ovalis, atrial septal defect
Card Set
Anatomy test 4
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