Infusion Therapy

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
146331
Filename:
Infusion Therapy
Updated:
2012-04-08 04:38:49
Tags:
Exam One
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Description:
IV Therapy
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  1. Infusion Therapy definition
    Delivery of parenteral meds & fluids through a wide variety of catheter types & locations using multiple techniques & procedures
  2. Infusion therapy is good for
    • Maintenance
    • Replacement
    • Medications
    • Blood transfusions
    • Nutrition - TPN
  3. Parenteral Replacement - crystalloids
    • Include IV fluid, electrolyte therapy & TPN
    • Fluids that supply water & sodium & contain electrolytes
    • Replace fluid deficits
    • Maintain & manage specific fluid/electrolyte disturbances
  4. Parenteral replacement - colloids
    • Blood components used to increase the colloidal oncotic pressure
    • Moves fluid from interstital into intravascular space
    • Called plasma expanders
    • Examples - albumin, hetastarch, Dextran
  5. Advantages of IV therapy
    • Provides access route
    • Fluids
    • Anesthetics
    • Medications
    • Route of choice - for products not absorbed orally (hepatic first pass)
  6. Disadvantages of IV therapy
    • Pain
    • Dislodgement
    • Sepsis
    • Embolism
    • Fluid overload
    • Allergic response
    • Precipitation
    • Transmission of HIV/Hepatitis
  7. Water Distribution - Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    Fluid contained within the cells. It is 40% of adult body weight & 70% of total body water
  8. Water Distribution - Extracellular Fluid
    Outside of cells. It is 20% of adult body weight & 30% of total body water

    • Intravascular / plasma - fluid within vascular system
    • Interstitial (ISF) fluid - fluid surrounding tissue cells. These solutions exist in small spaces between body structure, cells, tissue.
    • Transcellular fluid - confined to a specific area or region of the body such as cerebrospinal fluid, sweat, ocular fluid.
  9. Water Distribution - Osmolality
    Measures the concentration of dissolved particles in blood. IV fluids have an isotonic, hypotonic or hypertonic osmolality.
  10. Isotonic
    • Balanced cells - no effect on cells
    • Remain in intravascular space
    • Used to treat hypotension resulting from hypovalemia
    • Can be infused at a faster rate
    • Expands intravascular compartment
    • EX: Lactated Ringers, 0.9% NaCl (full strength)
  11. Hypotonic
    • Cells swell - overhydration of cells
    • Used to hydrate intracellular & interstital compartments
    • Rate must be carefully controlled
    • EX: 0.45% NaCl (1/2 strength) - no Dextrose
  12. Hypertonic
    • Cells shrink
    • Greatly expands intravascular compartment
    • Extreme caution used to prevent fluid overload
    • EX: 3% NaCl - 10% Dextrose, 0.45% NaCl - 5% Dextrose
    • Given for low sodium
  13. Routes of Administration
    • Peripheral
    • Central - peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
    • Arterial-intra-arterial chemotherapy
    • Intraperitoneal
    • Central nervous system
    • Intraosseous
    • Clysis
  14. ROA - peripheral
    • Don't put in legs or feet
    • Don't go higher than 10% dextrose
  15. ROA - Central
    • Be careful not to pull out
    • In central vessel - subclavian (most common), jugular
  16. ROA - Arterial-intra-erterial chemotherapy
    in hepatic artery
  17. ROA - intraperitoneal
    Into the perioneal cavity for tumors confined to that area
  18. ROA - central nervous system
    • Epidural - into the epidural space of the spinal column located between the wall of the vertebral canal & the dura matter
    • Intrathecal - into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid to provide chemotherapy, pain meds, or abx for patients with cancer, pain or infection. Is placed into one of the lateral ventricles

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