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How did the Reformation serve to compound further the fragmentary nature of the Empire?
- By adding religious divisions to political disunity.
- Reformation inevitably affected Charles' relations with his subjects because it placed them in a religious camp that was diametrically opposed to his own.
- Non-enforcement of Edict of Worms
- Charles' lack of control and continuous absence
- Diet of Nuremberg
What effect did Charles' absence and lack of control have on the fragmentary nature of Empire?
- Meant he could not enforce the Edict of Worms - absence in Spain - partly necessitated by the comunero revolt in Spain.
- This ensured that princes increased their power and crucially, their political self-awareness.
- Princes became more active in preventing the enforcement of Diet of Worms throughout 1520's.
- Diet of Nuremberg 1524 - princes declared they were willing to enforce Edict of Worms but only if it did not provoke rebellion, disobedience and murder. (pacifying Emperor's power by accepting his demands, yet simultaneously reserving right to ignore them)
- Also Diet of Speyer
- Effectively, princes could interpret Edict as they liked.
What does Luther do in his pamphlet Admonition to Peace, written when?
- He initially laid blame on the rulers, and showed some measure of sympathy towards the peasants.
- April 1525
After Luther realised the negative effects of the Peasants' revolt on his movement, which pamphlet did he publish? When? What did he say in it?
- Against the murdering, thieving hordes of peasants.
- May 1525
- In it, he encouraged the rulers to do their spiritual duty and "smite and slay" the peasants who were disobedient.
What did this pamphlet reflect?
Reflected the more conservative reaction of Luther and leading reformers to the Peasants' Revolt.
The Peasants' Revolt and its aftermath encouraged Luther to enforce a significant reorientation to the Reformation movement. How?
- Put an end to the freedom of religious dialogue which had characterised the early years of Reformation.
- Led to a notable decline in publication of pamphlets devoted to emphasis on the common man.
What did the survival of the Reformation after the revolt and the way it was dealt show about the status of Lutheranism?
- Survival showed that Lutheranism was entrenched into German soil.
- Princely response to the revolt was crucial, and this also showed how a coalition of princes could withstand serious crisis without depending on the Emperor's support.
How did the Peasants' Revolt affect the princes?
It granted them the confidence to be more self-assertive, independent and less willing to compromise.
What did this increased control and confidence of the Princes lead to? What events?
- Led to the princely Reformation.
- Diet of Speyer 1526 - until a national conference was held, Edict of Worms could be overturned and princes and cities could pursue own religious policies.
- Princely support took on a military dimension with creation of the defensive League of Torgau (1526) which was dedicated to the prevention of enforcement of Edict of Worms.
- The protest in 2nd Diet of Speyer in 1529
How many cities and how many princes signed the Protestation at Diet of Speyer 1529?
- 6 Princes
- 14 cities
- This openly challenged Emperor's authority.
- (Also, 3 days later, Hesse, Electoral Saxony, cities of Ulm, Strassburg and Nuremberg form defensive alliance against Catholics)
What was the significance of the Confession of Faith at the Diet of Augsburg (1530)?
- Presentation of this Confession in the presence of the Emperor was a significant watershed for the Reformation.
- This granted the Protestants a religious and political identity around which they could conform and a foundation on which they could further establish their cause.
- Signed by 7 princes and 2 cities.
Why were the Imperial Knights desperate to regain power in society?
- They were a dying class of medieval knights, who a 100 years ago were powerful, and thus they wanted to regain power.
- Changes in the late medieval society and economy (including catastrophes like the Black Death) contributed to their downfall.
What did the Imperial Knights especially resent? What did they want to do?
- Deeply resented the wealth of the Church and especially that of the clerical princes.
- Thus they were determined to overthrow the hierarchical system that were dominated by clerics.
- They were very nationalistic - resented Rome.
Why were the Imperial Knights attracted to Luther's ideas?
- Because it seemed to provide them the justification to overturn social hierarchy and reassert their powerful status in society. (Priesthood of all believers misinterpreted/used for socio-economic grievances).
- They regarded Luther as a German hero, standing for national opposition to Rome.
How were the Imperial Knights put down?
Defeated by a mixture of pro-Lutheran and anti-Lutheran princes (eg. Hesse, Archbishop of Trier, Emperor's peace making force, the Swabian League.)
What did Karlstadt do in Wittenburg while Luther was in hiding in Wartburg castle?
- He assumed the lead role in Church government.
- Lead a radical reformation here that included practicing indiscriminate/violent iconoclasm and producing German liturgy.
- Luther was opposed to these abrupt and radical changed, and was adamant that his movement should not be associated with civil disorder.
How did Luther react to the disorder in Wittenburg lead by Karlstadt?
- He risked his life and came out of hiding and regained control of the city.
- Latin Mass was restored (Luther delivers the Wittenburg Sermons) and Karlstadt prohibited from publishing works and expelled from the city.
Who were the Zwickau prophets? Why were they a threat to Luther?
- Were radicals from nearby Zwickau who took refuge in Wittenburg. Their religious ideas were highly radical - they believed in the abolition of child baptism and they claimed to have direct inspiration from God.
- Luther believed that their ideas were too radical, and that they would taint his movement. They were also a challenge to Luther's personal authority, especially his claim to interpret the Scriptures.
How did the theological similarities of Luther and Erasmus change over time? What were their main difference?
- Initially, they shared very similar ideas such as those regarding emphasis and scholarship of the Bible, and the critique of Church abuses, notably indulgences.
- Erasmus was a reformer from within, while Luther was more radical.Divisions became clearer after publication of Luther's 3 key works in 1520.
- Disagreed with Luther's idea of sola fide - Erasmus opposed Luther's complete denial of Free Will.
Who were the Anabaptists and what did they believe in?
- Had many beliefs in common with Lutheranism. But also believed in millenarianism (end of the world was near) and rejection of infant baptism.
- From their perspective, Luther had not gone far enough and was still to Catholic.
- Took Luther's views to what they thought was their logical extension.
Why did Luther oppose the Anabaptists?
- Because they were too radical.
- The fear of civil disorder that such a movement induced.
- That was accentuated in mid-1530's when Anabaptists took over city of Munster and law and order disappeared.
What were some of the problems with the rural Reformation?
- High levels of illiteracy
- Shortage of Protestant clergy and preachers
- Catholic rituals were more deeply entrenched within rural communities than in urban ones. (sacraments represented social and cultural events, not just liturgical practice).
- The Reformation came to be such a divisive force within rural society.
- Rural population hijacked his movement praising the "common man".
- Exacerbated by fact that peasants wanted to use force.
Why was the Peasants' revolt a problem for Luther?
- The rebellion threatened to tarnish the success/reputation of Lutheran princes with the label of sedition.
- Also presented a serious military threat - even captured towns such as Wurzburg.
What were the similarities in Luther and Zwingli's theology, and what was the main difference that set them apart?
- Both shared a lot of common ground, including fact that both were committed to notion of sola fide, both started off by attacking abuses of the Church and corrupt practices, such as indulgences.
- However, they disagreed on the nature of the Eucharist - Luther believed in the doctrine of Real Presence or consubstantiation, whereas Zwingli believed that the bread and wine were symbolic of Christ's body.
When and where did Luther and Zwingli meet to debate about the nature of the Eucharist?
- Colloquy of Marburg - Oct 1529. (arranged by Philip of Hesse)
- Here, little progress was made, Luther refused to shake Zwingli's hand at the end, and the split between the Swiss and German wings of Reformation was sealed.
What did the differences between Luther and Zwingli highlight?
Highlighted a problematic question - once the Pope was removed from being the sole interpreter of the Bible, who would succeed him?
What did radicals do with Luther's ideas?
Took Luther's teachings to what they thought was their logical conclusion. - To many radicals, Luther seemed to be inconsistent and too similar to Catholics.
Did Zwingli condone (allow) violence as a means to achieve his religious ends? What happened to him?
- He did condone violence.
- When Swiss Confederation did not allow access to Reformation message, Zwingli decided military force was necessary.
- 1529 & 1531 - 1st and 2nd Kappel War - on the second, Zwingli died.