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Anatomy & Physiology Skeletal System
What are the parts of the skeletal system?
What 2 sections is the skeletal system divided into?
What is the function of the bones?
1. Support the body
2. Protect soft organs
4. Store minerals and fats
5. Blood cell formation
How many bones does the adult skeleton have?
What are the 2 basic types of bone tissue?
1. Compact bone (homogeneous)
2. Spongy bone (small needle like pieces of bone, many open spaces)
What are the 4 types of bones found in the body?
1. Long bones
2. Short bones
3. Flat bones
4. Irregular bones
Give an example of a long bone:
Give an example of a short bone:
Give an example of a flat bone:
Give an example of an irregular bone:
How are bones classified?
Based on shape
What are the parts of a long bone?
What is diaphysis?
The shaft of a long bone, composed of compact bone.
What is epiphysis?
The ends of a long bone, composed of spongy bone tissue.
What is periosteum?
Outside covering of the diaphysis of long bones.
Fibrous connective tissue membrane.
What are Sharpey's fibers?
The connect the periosteum to the underlying bone.
How do arteries assist bones?
Supply the bone with nutrients.
What is Articular Cartilage , what is it made of, and what does it do?
Articulare Cartilage covers the external surface of the epiphysis.
It is made of hyaline cartilage.
It decreases friction at joint surfaces.
What is the Medullary Cavity?
The cavity inside the bone shaft that contains yellow marrow in adults, and red marrow in infants.
What are the types of bone markings?
Projections and Processes - grow out from the bone surface.
Depressions and Cavities - indentations in the bone.
What is an Osteon?
A unit of bone.
What is the Central (Haversian) Canal?
Opening in the center of the Osteon that carries blood vessels and nerves.
What is the Perforating (Volkman's) Canal?
Canal perpindicular to the central canal of the Osteon, that carries blood vessels and nerves.
What are lacunae?
Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)
How are lacuane arranged?
In Concentric Rings.
What are the concentric rings that contain Lacunae called?
What are Canaliculi?
Tiny canals that radiate from the central canal to the Lacuane, and form a transport system.
In what parts of the body is cartilage found?
1. Bridge of nose
2. Parts of ribs
What are Epiphyseal Plates?
Growth Plates - allow for growth of the long bones during childhood.
What are osteocytes?
Mature bone cells.
What are Osteoblasts?
What are osteoclasts?
Bone destroying cells - they break down bone for remodeling and release of calcium.
What is a fracture?
A break in a bone.
What are the 2 types of fractures?
1. Simple (closed) - does not protrude through skin.
2. Compound (open) protrudes through skin.
How does the body heal fractures?
Hematoma is formed,
Fibrocartilage forms a callus,
Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by bony callus,
Bony callus is replaced by permanent patch.
What are the parts of the Axial skeleton?
2. Vertebral Column
3. Bony Thorax
What are the 2 sets of bones in the skull?
2. Facial Bones
What are the Paranasal sinuses?
Hollow portion of bones surrounding the nasal cavity?
What are the functions of the Paranasal sinuses?
1. Lighten the skull
2. Give amplification and resonance to voice.
What are Fontanelles?
Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones of the fetus - converts to bone with 24 months of birth.
What are the locations of the vertebrae?
C1 - C7 = Cervical Vertebrae
T1 - T12 = Thoracic Vertebrae
L1 - L5 = Lumbar Vertebrae
What are the vertebrae separated by?
What are the 3 parts of the Bony Thorax, and what does it do?
3. Thoracic Vertebrae
- Forms a cage that protects the major organs.
What are the parts of the Appendicular Skeleton?
2. Pectoral Girdle
3. Pelvic Girdle
What 2 bones make up the Pectoral Girdle?
The Hip Bones make up the Pelvic Girdle. What are the 3 parts of the hip bones.
3. Pubic Bone
What are the functions of joints?
1. Hold bones together
2. Allow for mobility
How are joints classified?
What are the functional classifications of joints?
1. Synarthroses - immovable joints
2. Amphiarthroses - slightly movable joints
3. Diarthroses - freely movable joints
What are the structural classifications of joints?
1. Fibrous - generally immovable
2. Cartilaginous - immovable or slightly movable
3. Synovial - freely movable
What is Synovial Fluid?
Fluid found in synovial joint cavities.
What are some conditions associated with joints?
1. Bursitis - inflammation of the bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction
2. Tendonitis - inflammation of the tendon sheaths
3. Arhtritis - inflammation or degeneration of the joints.
*There are over 100 types of arthritis
What is Osteoarthritis?
Related to the normal aging process, most common form of chronic arthritis.
What is Rheumatoid Arhtritis?
Autoimmune disease that attacks the joints.
What is Gouty Arthritis or Gout?
Arthritis caused by urate crystals in the blood, can be controlled by diet.