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2012-04-09 18:40:39

Pharmacology Chap 10 & 11d
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  1. Substance taken into the body by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption that interferes with normal physiological functions
  2. The most common type of poisoning is by:
    Ingestion or swallowing
  3. Before 2004, what was recommended for children who has ingested poisons to induce vomiting
    Emetic; (ipecac syrup)
  4. What is the first step to tak in any poisoning is to:
    Contact your loca Poison Control Center.

    Obtained by calling the National Poison Center number

  5. What conditions should vomiting be avoided:
    Ingestion of corrosive substances (drain cleaner, ammonia, dish detergent, lye). If burns around the mouth, it will most likely burn on the way back up

    Ingestion of petroleum products ( gas, kerosene, lighter fluid, benzene)

    Ingestion of convulsants (styrychnine or iodine) Can cause seizures

    Semiconscious, severely inebriated, shock, convulsing or no gag reflex. Can cause choking, aspiration and and asphyxiation

    Less than 1 year old

    Patients with cardiac or vascular disease. Can cause high blood pressure anc precipitate a stroke, cardiac arrhythmias or atrioventriclular block.
  6. This may be required in poisoning with CNS depressants.
    • Antidotes
    • Ex. Flumazenil or Naloxone and/or CPR
  7. This substance is sometimes given by mouth to minimize systemic absorption of a poison
  8. What steps should be taken if you are caring for a poison victim
    Save emesis---may be necessary to determine type of poison

    Closely monitor vital signs

    Closely monitor signs of confusion, tremors, convulsion, visual disturbances, loss of conscious, respiratory distress
  9. Treatment for poisoning by inhalation.
    Systemic: fresh air, oxygen and CPR (if indicated)
  10. This type of poisoning can rob the body tissues of vital oxygen
    Carbon Monoxide
  11. Treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning
    High percentage oxygen therapy and/or hyperbaric oxygen
  12. Treatment for external poisoning
    • Flushed from the skin for 20 min
    • Flushed from the eyes for 30 min
    • Continuous stream of water
    • Transported to nearest ER
  13. Systemic absorption of poisons through the skin may require administration of
  14. Treatment of insect sting (bee, scorpion, fire ant)
    • Immediately clean area and remove stinger
    • Apply ice pack to affected area
    • Watch closely for anaphylactic reaction
  15. What is administered to those that have a anaphylactic reaction
    • CPR
    • Epinephrine and corticosteroids
  16. What is NOT applied to a snakebite
    Tourniquet or ice.
  17. Steps for taking care of a person with a snakebite
    • Keep patient quiet
    • Transport, lying down to ER
    • If possible take snake along for id purposes
  18. Poisoning is the leading cause of health emergencies for
  19. Age of children most at risk
  20. Steps to prevent poisoning in children
    • Chemicals in locked cupboard
    • Medication in locked box
    • Medications in childproof containers
  21. Leading cause of poisoning deaths in children under 6
  22. What causes toxic reaction from medication in older adults
    • Slower metabolism, impaired c irculation, decreased execretion
    • Wrong dosage due to impaired vision or poor memory
    • Drug interactions with OTC or Herbal meds
    • Medical conditions affecting absorption
  23. How does the EPA recommend discarding old medications
    • Do not flush down toilet
    • Take to nearest household waste faciilities
  24. Where should the poison control number be placed in the household
    On or near the telephone
  25. Health care practtitioners should advise patients to avoid_____________, which may not be indicated if the diet is well balanced and patient is in good health
    self medication with large doses of vitamins and minerals
  26. This should be established by a physician's diagnosis or blood test before exceeding the Recommended Dietary Allowance
    A need or deficiency of vitamins or minerals
  27. What is the major revision called to replace the RDA
    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
  28. Reports have indicated the possibility of damage to tissues with the intake of large amount of
    Vitamins, above the RDA recommendations
  29. This Vitamin must be closely monitored because the difference between the therapeutic dosage and that causing hypercalcemia is so small
    Vit D
  30. Vit E supplements should be discontinued 10 days prior to surgery because
    Danger of prolonged bleeding time
  31. This antagonizes the action of levodopa
    Vit B6
  32. The absorption of this vitamin depends on an intrinsic factor notmally present in the gastric juices of humans.
    Vit B 12
  33. The National Academy of Sciences now suggests that those over this age should begin taking a low dose Vit b 12 supplement
  34. A deficiency of folic acid during pregnancy causes
    • Neural tube defects
    • Spina Bifida
  35. Folic Acid can mask the diagnosis of
    Pernicious Anemia
  36. Folic acid over the RDA daily allowances can interfere with the actions of what drugs
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Barbiturates
    • Dilantin
  37. This has to balanced in order for normal body functioning
    The correct ratio of fluids to electrolytes
  38. Principal minerals in extracellular body fluids
    Sodium and Chloride
  39. Excessive potassium in the blood is known as
  40. A mineral component of bones and teeth and is absorbed in the small intestine with the help of what Vitamin
    • Calcuim
    • Vit D
  41. When injected by IV, this should be administered very slowly to prevent tissue necrosis or cardiac arrhythmias
    Calcuim Salts
  42. Zinc supplements should be administered with meals to minimize
    Gastric Distress
  43. What act recognizes supplements as different from food additives and drugs
    Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994
  44. These are not subject to the same FDA scrutiny and restrictions a food additives and drugs
    Food supplements
  45. Natural antioxidants in food are much more effective than
    Synthetic products
  46. Megadoses of vitamins and minerals should only be taken
    When ordered by a physician
  47. Synthetic Vit A product prescribe for severe acne
  48. What can result from Vit C deficiency
  49. Conduction of nerve impulses and beating of the heart is involved in
    Electrolytes carrying positive or negative electrical charges
  50. Oral Iron prepartions should be taken with
    Orange Juice
  51. Under the DSHEA, what is the responsibility of the FDA, once the dietary supplement is marked
    Must show that the supplement is unsafe before it can take action to restrict the product's use
  52. Riboflavin
    Vit B 2
  53. Ascorbic Acid
    Vit C
  54. Beta Carotene
    Vit A
  55. Thiamine
    Vit B 1
  56. Phytonadione
    Vit k
  57. Folate
    Folic acid
  58. Calciferol
    Vit D
  59. Tocopherol
    Vit E
  60. Pyridoxine
    Vit B 6
  61. Cyanocobalamin
    Vit B 12
  62. Nicotinic acid
  63. Water or Fat soluble

    Vit A
    Vit B 1
    Vit B 2
    Vit B 6
    Vit B 12
    Vit C
    Vit D
    Vit E
    Vit K
    Folic acid
    • Fat
    • Water
    • Water
    • Water
    • Water
    • Water
    • Fat
    • Fat
    • Fat
    • Water
    • Water
  64. T/F

    More calcium is needed during pregnancy and lactation
  65. Chronic gastro disorders or surgery that result in chronic diarrhea are indications for additional vit and mineral supplements
  66. Females require larger amounts of vit and minerals than males
  67. This Vit has been reported to cause fetal malformations if taken in large doses
    Vit A
  68. What are the most common Vitamins overdosed on
    Vit A & D
  69. The Recommend Daily Allowance includes
    The amount of vitamins and minerals you get from both the food you eat as well as supplements taken
  70. Is processed in the body from the carotene of plants, especially yellow-orange and dark-green leafy vegetables, fruits, oily saltwater fish, dairy products and eggs.
    Vitamin A
  71. RDA is 800-1000 units/day

    DRI is 700-3000 mcg/day
    Vitamin A
  72. Vitamin necessary for resistance to infection
    Night vision
    Normal growth and development of bones and soft tissue
    Healing of wounds
    Sometimes prescibed for acne
    Vitamin A
  73. Deficiency may result from overcooking of vegetable in an open container

    Signs of deficiency include: night blindness, slow growth, bone and teeth deformities
    Vitamin A
  74. Also known as Retinol, Retinal, Beta carotene
    Vit A
  75. Also known as Calciferol, Cholecalciferol, Ergocalciferol
    Vitamin D
  76. Vitamin synthesized in the body through the action of sunlight on the skin.
    Other sources include: fish oils (salmon, tuna), and foods fortified with Vit D
    Vitamin D
  77. Low levels of this vitamin are twice as likely to develop coronary artery disease, heart failure,stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes
    Vitamin D
  78. Individuals who need increased Vit D
    • Breastfed infants
    • Age 50 or older
    • Those with limited sun exposure
    • dark skinned people
    • Obese people
  79. This vitamin stays in the system longer and can build up to toxic levels
    Vitamin D
  80. Necessary for normal nerves and muscles
    Regulates absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
    Pregnancy and lactation
    Vitamin D
  81. Signs of deficiency of Vitamin D
    • Deformed skeleton
    • Poor tooth and bone structure
    • Osterporosis
    • Tetany
  82. Vitamin abundunt in nature, found in cereals, wheat germ, seeds, uts, veg oils, eggs, meat and poultry.
    Vitamin E
  83. Also known as Tocopherol
    Necessary for normal metabolism, protection of RBCs,

    Treatment protocols for early management of Alzheimer's
    Vitamin E
  84. Chemical elements occuring in nature and in body fluids
  85. What are the principal minerlas in the body
    Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Calcium and iron
  86. Principal minerals in the extracellular body fluids
    Sodium and Chloride
  87. Excessive potassium in the blood
  88. This mineral should never be hung in IV solution
  89. Mineral component of bones and teeth
    Absorbed in the small intestines with the help of Vit. D
  90. Oxygen-carrying component of blood
    Found in meat
  91. Essential element in metabolism
    Component of numerous enzymes
  92. Referred to as anticancer foods or natural drugs

    Inhibit cell destruction in damaged or aging tissue
  93. Any compound that fights against the destructive effects of free radical oxidants. Comprised of enzmes, vitamins, and minerals
  94. Name the antioxidant vitamins
    • Vit C
    • Vit E
    • Beta Carotene
  95. food sources of iron:
    • meat, liver
    • eggs
    • poultry
    • spinach
    • dried fruits
    • dried beans
    • prune juice
  96. functions of iron:
    hemoglobin formation
  97. deficiencies of magnesium:
    • imbalance, weakness
    • toxicity: diarrhea
  98. functions of magnesium:
    • synthesis of ATP
    • transmission of nerve impulses
    • relaxation of skeletal muscles
  99. food sources of magnesium:
    green veggies, whole grains
  100. deficiencies of chlorine:
    • imbalance in gastric acidity
    • imbalance in blood pH
    • toxicity: diarrhea
  101. functions of chlorine:
    • gastric acidity
    • regulation of osmotic pressure
    • activation of salivary amylase
  102. food sources of chlorine:
    table salt
  103. Deficiencies of sodium:
    • low blood pressure
    • toxicity: increase in blood pressure
  104. Functions of sodium:
    • maintaining fluid balance in blood
    • transmission of nerve impulses
  105. Food sources of sodium
    • table salt
    • beef, eggs, milk, cheese
  106. Defiencies of potassium (hypokalemia)
    • muscle weakness
    • cardia arrhythmias
    • lethargy, mental confustion
    • toxicity: (hyperkalemia) confusion, weakness, cardiac arrhythmias
  107. Functions of potassium
    • contraction of muscles
    • heartbeat regulation
    • transmission of nerve impulses
    • maintaining fluid balance
  108. food sources for potassium
    • oranges, bananas
    • dried fruits
    • tomatoes
  109. functions of zinc:
    wound healing, mineralization of bone, insulin glucose regulation, normal taste, antioxidant
  110. deficiencies of zinc:
    • poor wound healing
    • reduced taste perception
    • alcohol/glucose tolerance
    • toxicity: GI distress, copper deficiency w/extended use of high levels of zince
  111. food sources of zinc:
    meat, liver, oysters, poultry, fish, whole-grain bread & cereal
  112. functions of iodine:
    • major component of thyroid hormones
    • regulating rate of metabolism
    • growth, reproduction
    • nerve & muscle function
    • skin & hair growth
  113. food sources of iodine:
    freshwater shellfish & seafood, iodized salt
  114. defiencies of iron:
    • pale, weak, lethargy, vertigo, air hunger, irregular heartbeat
    • toxicity: lethargy, shock, vomiting, diarrhea, erosion of GI tract, liver or kidney damage
  115. Calcium Deficiencies:
    • osteoporosis, osteomalacia
    • rickets (in children)
    • muscle pathology
    • heart disease
    • increased clotting time
    • toxicity: kidney stones
  116. functions of calcium
    • development of bones & teeth
    • contraction of cardiac, smooth & skeletal muscle
    • nerve conduction
    • blood clotting
  117. Food sources for Calcium
    • milk, cheese, yogurt
    • sardines
    • salmon
    • green veg. except spinach
  118. Name the antioxidant minerals
    • copper
    • maganese
    • selenium
    • zinc