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What was the Habsburg-Valois rivalry?
- It was a rivalry that pre-existed Charles' accession to power - existed throughout the first half of the sixteenth century.
- Between the French Valois dynasty which ruled France, and the Habsburgs.
What were the Habsburg-Valois Wars often over?
- Often over lands in Italy - eg. Milan was especially important to Charles' empire, linking Spain and southern Italy.
- The situation was exacerbated by the fact that Charles was competing with Francis I over the title of HRE.
- At one point in the war, Francis himself was captured by Charles' forces, but Charles failed to take advantage, letting him go after he promised that he would abandon all claims in Italy and Netherlands - which were empty words, and this cost Charles decades of further waging war. (Similar to how Charles didn't take advantage of Battle of Muhlberg)
The peace of _____ brought Habsburg-Valois wars to a temporary end. From Charles' perspective, wars with France were mainly ______ in character, though they helped him gain effective control over the _____ ______.
- Crepy (1544)
- Italian peninsula
What are the two main reasons why Charles opposed the Ottomans?
- Naturally opposed on ideological (Christian) grounds - after all, he was the pretector of Christendom.
- Also the Turks were threatening to invade his Empire, as their invasion of Hungary showed.
When did the Ottomans besiege which city? With how many troops under whom?
- 1529 - besieged Vienna
- 100,000 troops under Suleiman.
- (But he was forced to withdraw after several weeks due to his army and supply chain being over-stretched).
When did the Ottomans further attack Hungary and Styria?
When did the Ottoman Empire scale down its European military campaigns?
- Charles able to turn his attention back to the Protestant problem.
When did the French ally with the Turks? How did the French also help the Protestants?
- Also helped the Protestants when turning Wurtemburg protestant also in 1534.
Did Charles fail or succeed with the Muslim threat in the Mediterranean? Who was he mainly fighting?
- Was largely a failure.
- The Barbary pirates were allowed freedom to devastate the coastal economy.
- Charles also could not seize the North African ports.
When was the League of Schmalkalden set up and by whom? What was its purpose?
- 1531 - immediately after the Diet of Augsburg.
- Set up by Philip of Hesse and John of Saxony - the two most powerful Protestant princes of the time. (10 Imperial cities also started, including Bremen.
- Purpose was to defend the Reformation in German lands and protect those in the League against attack from the Holy Roman Emperor.
What truce did Charles sign with the Protestants in order to gain financial and military support against the Ottoman Empire?
- Peace of Nuremberg - 1532.
- This compromise granted the Protestants a chance to consolidate and further legitimise the Protestant cause in Germany.
What was the implications of the creation of the Schamalkaldic League?
- The schism between Protestants and HRE seemed even more permanent.
- The possibility of negotiation was greatly undermined, because Protestant princes had set themselves against the Emperor.
What happened at Wurttemberg? When? And why was it significant for the development of Lutheranism?
- The Schmalkaldic League, led by Philip of Hesse and financed by French, marched into Wurttemberg and restored the exiled duke, and thus became Lutheran.
- This was a victory for the Lutherans, for Charles did not try to reverse it.
- Lutheranism also gained vital stronghold in southwest Germany.
How did Lutheranism consolidate its religious identity in the late 1530's?
- Lutherans signed Wittenberg Concord 1536) - unified the Lutherans with the southern German cities. (Bucer & Melanchthon key figures - although this was relatively short-lived)
- This was further developed by the Schmalkaldic Articles (1537) - written by Luther - mature Lutheran doctrine. In it, he endorsed use of force in defense of the gospel.
List the foreign powers that were lined up against Charles by 1542.
- Ottoman Empire
What effect did Hesse's bigamy scandal have on Lutheranism? When was it? What did Charles fail to do?
- 1540 - Philip was exposed a bigamist, and even worse, it was revealed that Luther and Melanchthon had supported this.
- Hesse was ruined as a political force, and this also tarnished the Lutheran cause severely.
- As bigamy was a crime punishable by death, Hesse begged for forgiveness in front of Charles. Charles, remarkably forgives him and returns him to power. (Charles couldn't partly because he was occupied with foreign threats of the 1540's)
What happened at the First Diet of Regensburg?
Moderate theologians from both sides of the religious divide sought to reconcile their positions (Melanchthon and Contarini), but failed, as Luther and the Pope and more hard-line Protestants and Catholics opposed it.
The failures of religious compromise are indicative of...?
Clearly indicative of the theological divisions between Catholicism and Protestantism, which neither diplomacy or negotiation could alter.
The Diet of Regensburg (1541) marked what?
- Marked a turning point in Charles' policy. Charles reaches the decision that only force could restore imperial unity.
- Regensburg was arguably the last chance for theological comromise.
What changes in the foreign political climate suddenly enabled Charles to turn his attention on the Protestant problem in Germany?
- 1545 - Turks sign a truce with Charles and Ferdinand, since they are threatened by Persia.
- 1544 - Peace of Crepy with France removed one of the most important threats to Charles V.
- Pope Paul III even offered 12000 soldiers and loan of 200,000 crowns to fight the German Protestants.
Who did Charles manage to secure alliances with in the second Diet of Regensburg? When?
- Duke of Bavaria - consolidated by marriage alliance (geographically important too)
- Duke Maurice of Saxony, who was promised electoral title if he supported Charles with troops and finance.
What events were also fortunate for Charles leading up to the Battle of Muhlberg in 1547?
Lutherans weakened due to Hesse's bigamy scandal, Luther's death in 1546, and the Schmalkalden League was relatively unprepared and lacked decisive action.
What followed immediately after the Battle of Muhlberg (1547)?
- John Frederick taken prisoner - his electoral title given to Maurice as promised, and Hesse was forced into submission.
- Charles imposed the Augsburg Interim (1548).
- This was unsatisfactory for both Catholics and Protestants, as it allowed Protestants minor concessions (eg. clerical marriage and communion in both kinds) but essentially reflected fairly hard-line Catholic religious settlement.
- (Maurice of Saxony distanced himself from the Emperor)
Why was Charles fundamentally unable to reunify the Christendom after his victory at Muhlberg?
- Because Protestantism had been entrenched in German society so deeply. It was a testimony to the insurmountable strength of the Protestants by mid-1540's.
- There was increasing hostility to the presence of Imperial garrisons throughout Empire.
- Charles was also faced with dynastic problems (tensions with Ferdinand over inheritance of son).
Outline the resurgence of Charles V's external problems after 1547.
- Growing tensions with the Pope
- With his popularity in Germany undermined, Charles' prestige was rapidly waning abroad.
- By 1550, war between France and England had come to an end, and it was generally anticipated that war between France and Charles would re-ignite again.
- Moreover, Turks began to advance again in Hungary.
What was decided in the Peace of Augsburg? When was it?
- 1555 - Agreement drawn up assuming schism was permanent.
- In each state, there was to be one religion (L or C) and the government/ruler of the state made decision.
- No state was to force its views on any other states.
- People were free to move to a state where their religion was practiced.