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Explain the issues with the East India Company in India.
When Charles II acquired Bombay from marrying Catharine of Braganza, he lased control of Indian territories to the East India Company until 1858 when the Sepoy Army rebelled against themn. Britain then took over and set up a viceroyalty. They then tried to standardize laws and they moved the capitol to Delhi.
How were Indonesia and India similar as colonies of European nations?
They were large and they had a lot of internal trade. India was controlled by England and Indonesia was controlled by the Dutch East India Company. They both had a capable, intelligent population that was weakened by a division over religion and language. High positions in the government were given to the Europeans, and very few people contested their rule (initially).
How were Indonesia and India different as colonies of European nations?
Britain insisted that all of the Indians speak English, and the Dutch didn't so democracy and nationalism increase in India. The Hindu-Indian National Congress and the Muslim League were established, and they achieved more rights for citizens.
Explain Chinese relations with Europe under the Manchu Dynasty.
The empire was falling apart, but it had many valuable commodities. Imperialists wanted to trade, but the only thing they could offer in return was Opium which the government did not want entering the country. They fought the First Opium War with the UK which lead to the Treaty of Nanking that opened ports for foreigners and proclamied extreterritoriality (where foreign citizens who committed a crime in China were tried in their home country). The Second Opium War resuloted in another Treaty of Nanking which gave Imperialist nations pieces of China.
From the 1600s onward, Japan (under the control of the Tokugawa Shogunate) was separated from the rest of the world as they did not trade out of their borders. Perry (from the US) tried to entice the Japanese to open up, but they didn't so he brought over the big guns. He then westernized Japan by establishing a Parliament and giving the emperor new powers. Japan was then exploited by other European nations who made them sign unfavorable treaties. How did Japan react to this?
They industrialized and became more imperial. They partnered with Great Britain and bought ships and technology from them. They then attacked Russia at Manchuria (north of China) in the Russo-Japanese War. They won and defeated the Russian fleet at Port Arthur. they showed the world that Europe could be beaten, and they showed Europe how weak Russia was. They also established a prote torate over Korea.
Discuss the hallmarks of New Imperialism.
- There was a desire for a LOT of new territory in Asia, Africa, and the Paacific Islands. Colonial powers controlled 85% of the globe at one point, and if they did not completely control a nation they established commercial treaties.
- New powers became imperial, such as Germany, USA, Belgium, Italy, and Japan.
- They sold goods, not raw materials to countries.
- The states became more militaristic with more/new ships.
What were the causes of WWI?
- Large armies with compulsory service
- Tension between Austria and Russia over Serbia and the Balkan States (1st and 2nd Balkan Wars)
- Alliances between different countries
Describe the formation of the Triple Alliance.
In 1879 Germany Allied with Austria after the Austro-Prussian War and then in 1882 they added Italy. Germany also had a secret treaty with Russia.
Describe the formation of the Triple Entente.
France wanted to find friends after losing Alsace-Lorraine. They allied with Russia who also wanted a friend. In 1894 they formed the Franco-Russian Alliance. Edward VII of England was worried about Germany so he went to France and charmed the French people. The countries allied and agreed that France would control Morocco and England would control Egypt (this is the Entente Cordiale). In 1907 Britain and Russia agreed that Russia would dominate in North Persia and Britain would control. Southeast Persia.
What events tested and strengthened the Triple Entente?
There were crises in Morocco and the Balkans. In 1905 the Kaiser spoke for Moroccan Independence to annoy the French, and the British backed the French up which showed that the alliance was strong.
Describe the first Balkan crisis.
In the Balkans, Serbia was the center of Pan-Slavism, and they had created a southern Slavic state. The area was controlled by Turkey, but they were slowly losing grip in the region. Austria was given administration of Bosnia, but the Ottoman Turks wanted to have Bosnia in their parliament, and the Russians wanted control of the straits so they planned to negotiate with Austia, but at that time Austria had already annexed Bosnia.
Describe the second Balkan crisis.
Italy took control of Tripoli and the Bulgarians, Serbs, and Greeks fought against Turkey in the first Balkan War. Bulgaria took too much territory so in 1913 the second Balkan War was fought against Bulgaria. Albania was sought by Serbia, Greece, and Italy, but it remained independent.
Describe the assasination that started WWII (and how it did so).
In 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist and member of the Black Hand Gavrilo Princip. Austria was mad and demanded that Serbia had to give up its sovereignty and accept Austrian police and judges. Serbia asked Russia for help, and they agreed to support them, as did France (GB only agreed to help if the Germans used the Schleiffen plan). Austria acquired Germany's promise to help as well.
Describe the Schleiffen Plan and how it failed when it was implemented.
Germany would go through Belgium to defeat the French quickly on the Belgium/French Border. They then planned to go to Russia to defeat them. King Albert of Belgium put up a fight and slowed down the Germans so the French were able to fight at the 1st Battle of the Marne. Also, the Russians moved quickly and defeated Germany in the East.
____________ was an important defeat where the Austrians and Germans triumphed over the Russians who lost 2 million people at that point.
In 1916, Germany decided to concentrate on Northern France at _____. There were many casualties but the allies advanced successfully at __________.
In the sea, Germans relied on _______ to defeat the British. The sinking of the _________ caused President WIlson to issue a warning to Germany. In the ____________, Germany tried to gain control of the North Sea, but did not succeed. They did, however, damage the British fleet.
- Battle of Jutland (1916)
Describe the Treaty of London and its effects.
It promised Russia the straits, Constantinople, Kurdistan, Armenia, and it promised France Syria and Britain Mesopotamia. It convinced Italy to switch sides in 1915.
Explain how Germany caused chaos in other nations during WWI.
They stirred up minorities in Ireland, Ukraine, Poland, and other countries with small ethnic groups to hinder the Allies. The allies did the same thing in the Balkan Peninsula with nationalists.