Biology Topics 1-3

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Biology Topics 1-3
2012-04-15 18:54:51
cells biology

topics 1-3
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  1. In science, a theory is a body of scientific work in which rigorously tested and well-established facts and principles are used to make predictions about the natural world.
  2. (1) a body of knowledge supported by facts (2) the resulting understanding of mechanisms by which populations have changed and diversified over time, and continue to evolve
    Evolutionary theory
  3. Charles Darwin proposed that all living organisms are descended from a common ancestor by the mechanism of natural selection. Natural selection leads to adaptations—structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism’s chances of survival and reproduction
    Natural selection
  4. change in genetic makeup of biological populations through time—a major unifying principle of biology.
  5. Mutations are introduced when a genome is replicated. Some mutations give rise to structural and functional changes in organisms, and new species arise.
    They alter nucleotide sequences of a gene, and the protein is often altered as well, may occur during replication, or be caused by chemicals and radiation. Most are harmful or have no effect, but some may improve the functioning of the organism, and are the raw material of evolution.
  6. govern chemical reactions in cells and form much of an organism’s structure.
  7. a specific segment of DNA that contains information for making a protein
  8. consists of repeating subunits called nucleotides
  9. the sum total of all the information encoded by an organism’s genes
  10. membrane-enclosed compartments that cells evolved in
  11. –knowledge or learning, from Latin scio, to know
  12. –learning about what is observable in nature, biology, chemistry and physics
    Natural science
  13. –the study of life
  14. For 2 billion years, organisms were unicellular, these early cells were confined to oceans, where they were protected from UV light. O2 was poisonous to many these early cells
  15. Contain nuclei and internal compartments enclosed in a membrane called organelles. Distinctive from prokaryotes
  16. can assign a number to a scientific observation
  17. more general observation of science
  18. is enhanced by technology: - microscopes, imaging, and satellites, must be quantified by measurement and mathematical and statistical calculations.
  19. Involves taking observations or facts which leads to tentative explanations of the observations or facts
    Inductive logic
  20. is used to make predictions based on hypothesis
    Deductive logic
  21. •Observations
    The scientific method (hypothesis–prediction (H–P) method):•
  22. Start by making observations
    Step 1 Scientific method
  23. Ask a question-What are the possible explanations?
    Step 2 Scientific method
  24. Form a hypothesis-Possible answers to the questions asked
    Step 3 Scientific method
  25. Form a prediction-What tests can be used to answer the question?
    Step 4 Scientific method
  26. Test the prediction-Perform experiments
    Step 5 Scientific method
  27. Observe and share recorded results
    -collect evidence to support or falsify hypothesis
    Step 6 Scientific method
  28. a group that is being tested
    Experimental group
  29. manipulate the variable that is predicted to cause differences between groups
    Controlled experiments
  30. assessed under same conditions or environment as the experimental group, but without the variable being tested
    Control group
  31. the variable being manipulated
    Independent variable
  32. manipulate the variable that is predicted to cause differences between groups.
    Controlled experiments
  33. —the response that is measured
    Dependent variable
  34. Statistical tests start with a _______that no differences exists.
    null hypothesis
  35. Scientific hypotheses must be , ______ and have the potential of being __________ . Science depends on evidence that comes from ____________ and ___________ observations.
    • testable
    • rejected
    • reproducible
    • quantifiable
  36. Anything that occupies space and has massAll matter –both of living and non-living origin is made up of atoms
  37. –the smallest unit of matter that still retainsthe properties of anelement
  38. Proton–subatomic particlewith a positive charge
    Neutron–subatomic particlethat is electrically neutral
    Electron–subatomic particlewith a negative charge
    Parts of an atom
  39. number of protons added to number of nuetrons
    mass number
  40. —mass of one proton or neutron
    (1.7 × 10–24 grams)
  41. What identifies the element?
    The number of protons
  42. The number of protons is _________
    the atomic number
  43. —pure substance that contains only one kind of atom
  44. Living things are mostly composed of 6 elements, what are they?
    • Carbon (C)
    • Hydrogen (H)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Phosphorus (P)
    • Sulfur (S)
  45. What are always moving and take part in chemical reactions?
  46. If Electrons vary in the amount of energy they possess, the further away
    from the nucleus the more energy, true or false?
  47. How many electrons in the frst electron shell?
  48. How many electrons in the second electron shell?
  49. What do atoms do if their outer shell of valence electrons are not filled?
    They tend to undergo chemical reactions
  50. What are the atoms doing when they attain stability by sharing electrons with other atoms or by losing or gaining electrons.
  51. What do you call atoms that bond together?
  52. —atoms with at least two electron shells form stable molecules so they have eight electrons in their outermost shells.
    Octet rule
  53. What is an ionic attraction? Does it have a high or low bond energy?
    • attraction of opposite charges
    • low bond energy
  54. What is a covalent bond? Is it's bond energy high or low?
    • Sharing of electron pairs
    • high energy bond
  55. What is a hydrogen bond? Does it have high or low bond energy?
    • Sharing of an H atom
    • low bond energy
  56. atoms or molecules with a electrical charge resulting from the gain or loss of one or more electrons
  57. The positively charged ion is called _______
  58. The negatively charged ion is called
  59. Two ions with opposite charges will naturally attract each other and, like two magnets
    ionic bonds
  60. Ionic compounds are called ______, they often are found innature as crystals
  61. Ionic attractions are _____, so salts dissolve easily in water.
  62. It takes alot of _______ to break covalent bonds
  63. —the attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons
  64. List the 6 main elements for life in order of highest to lowest electronegativity
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Nitrogen (N)
    • Carbon (C)
    • Sulfer (S)
    • Phospherous (P)
    • Hydrogen (H)
  65. If two atoms have similar electronegativities, they share electrons equally, in what is called a______ _______ ______
    nonpolar covalent bond
  66. If atoms have different electronegativities, electrons tend to be near the most attractive atom, in what is called a _____ ________ ____
    polar covalent bond
  67. Attraction between the δ– end of one molecule and the δ+ hydrogen end of another molecule forms________ _____
    hydrogen bonds
  68. What is important in the structure of DNA and proteins?
    hydrogen bonds
  69. At any given time, multiple _____ molecules are hydrogenbonded to each other
  70. The binding together of like molecules
  71. The binding together of unlike molecules, or the clinging of one substance to another
  72. Water molecules form multiple _______ _____ with each other—this contributes to high heat capacity.
    A lot of heat is required to raise the temperature of water—the heat energy breaks the ________ _____
    hydrogen bonds
  73. occurs when molecules move fast enough on the surface of a liquid that the attractions between them fail As these “hot” molecules leave, the substance left behind is cooler
  74. the temperature of a liquid (average molecular speed) decreases as it evaporates The fastest molecules leave, slow ones are left behind
    Evaporative Cooling
  75. What do you call in aqueous solutions, polar molecules that become separated and surrounded by water molecules
    Hydrophilic (“water-loving”)—
  76. Nonpolar molecules are called _________ and determine protein shape
    hydrophobic (“water-hating”) or (fearing)
  77. The making and breaking of chemical bonds
    chemical reactions