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The Latin word for mask and the origins of the word "personality."
Characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other. (e.g., shyness)
Historically, the study of personality has been based on....
Name two Pseudosciences and describe what they are.
- 1. Physiognomy: the study of facial features
- 2. Phrenology: the study of relationships between a person's characteristics and the morphology of the skull.
The tendency to believe the accuracy of vague generalities about one's personality.
In contrast to the Barnum Effect, we use what, which is the use of systematically gathered evidence to test theories.
A set of related assumptions that allow scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses.
A theory is/does: (6 things)
- 1. Generates research
- 2. Is falsifiable
- 3. Organizes data
- 4. Guides action
- 5. Is Internally consistent
- 6. Is parsimonious (Using the theory that is the clearest and simplest that explains the most about what you're trying to find out.)
When developing a theory, this approach is when observations are collected and concepts are developed based on data (e.g. case studies)
When developing theories, this approach says that conclusions follow logically from the premises of assumptions (e.g. modeling behaviors)
When developing theories, this approach is the use of concepts borrowed from related disciplines (e.g. biology, anthropology, sociology)
When developing theories, most theories are developed with which approach?
A combination of inductive, deductive, and analogy