This approach to assessment seeks to formulate laws.
This approach to assessment is involved in the study of individual cases.
This type of assessment is not dependent on the assessor, and can be done through things like multiple choice tests.
What are some strengths and weaknesses of objective assessments?
Strengths: They are standardized, easy to score.
Weaknesses: They may not apply to everyone.
This type of assessment relies on interpretation by the assessor, such as the Rorschach or the essay test.
What are some strengths and weaknesses for subjective assessment?
Strengths: Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained.
Weaknesses: Different observers may make different judgments.
When measuring personality, this is the consistency of scores that are expected to be the same.
When you make a long test and split it into two halves. When the person takes both halves, they should get the same score.
This is the measure of consistency over time
Extent to which a test measures what its supposed to measure
Extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct
A kind of validity in which the measure is realted to what it should be related to.
A type of validity in which the measure is not related to what it should not be related to.
A type of validity in which the measure can predict outcome criteria that were produced by different assessment methods.
A type of validity in which the test items that represent the entire domain of the theoretical construct. If a test is trying to measure creative ability, but measures artistic ability but not musical ability, it is lacking this type of validity.
The proper test validation requires establishment of severeal different types of validity and the assessment of various traits.
In item selection for a test, this is the extent to which test items are related to one another.
Should a etst item discriminate among test-takers? Why or why not?
Yes. An item is useless if everyone answers the same way.
A bias responding to test items that is unrelated to the personality characteristic being measured. For example, social desirability. People want to present themselves in a favorable light or want to respond in a way to please the experimentor.
What are four ways to reduce the problem of response sets?
1. Reverse-code some items
2. Use neutral wording (so as not to encourage the subjects to answer in one way or another)
3. Include lie scales (A question such as: "I have walked on the moon (yes/no)." If they circle yes, you know they just filled out the test randomly.
4. Use several different methods of assessment.
Bias in which a test fails to take into account the relevant culture or subculture of the person being tested.
Bias in which tests do not take gender into account or are adjusted or altered to meet prejudiced expectations regarding gender.
What do all tests do, that in a way is a form of bias.
They all make assumptions about the background of the test-taker.
The most common type of personality test, and usually a pencil and paper test.
A personality test where a person makes comparisons among his or her own characteristics. Usually uses a stack of cards, and you sort the cards into piles indicating how descriptive each card is of him/her.
A personality test where someone else answers question about hte person being measured. Can use ratings from parents, friends, teachers, spouse, psychologists, etc.
Judgments by Others
This assumes that the nervous system is an important element of personality, and uses tests such as MRI, fMRI, Hormone levels, chromosomal analysis, PET scans, etc.
This type of test records the actual behavior of a person, such as simple counts of a specific behavior and can also utilize coding videotaped interactions.
Interviews come in which two types, and define these.
1. Unstructured interviews: Typically yield rich information, but validity is questionable.
2. Structured interviews: More valid, but usually do not reveal individual nuances.
The analysis of HOW people stand, move, speak, etc. Includes examination of speech rate, voice quality, gaze patterns, posture, and gestures.
This involves the careful analysis of writings such as letters and diaries.
Document analysis/life stories
Tests such as the Rorschach Inkblot, which present an unstructured or ambiguous stimulus, task, or situation. The test-taker provides an interpretation, and the goal is to gain access to unconscious motives and concerns of the test-taker.
This type of test uses information about a person's age, place of birth, gender and family size. This can help researchers understand people based on their everyday lives.
Demographics and lifestyle
Is there a best method to test personality?
It's almost always best to use multiple methods.
This type of research design is an in dephth analysis of a single individual, such as that of Phineas Gage.
This type of research design assesses the degree of relationship between two variables.
This type of research design allows us to make inferences about causality.
In the ethics of personality testing, this is the idea that you cannot harm anyone in any way.
The study of craniometry, in which scientists found that white males had larger cranium than black males, so people began saying that white males were intellectually superior, is an example of...