A personality theory based on the writings of Sigmund Freud that emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind.
The portion of the mind of which the person is not aware.
Name three psychoanalytic techniques that access the unconscious.
2. Free association: saying anything that comes to mind. Quickly associating words with other words.
3. Dream analysis
What are seen as the "royal road" to the unconscious, at least in Freud's view.
Dreams have two types of content. What are they?
Manifest content: The content of a dream that a person remembers.
Latent content: The underlying hidden meaning of a dream.
The part of the mind that has primitive drives and emotions. Its principle of operation is pleasure.
The part of the mind that balances the id, superego and reality. Its principle of operation is reality.
The part of the mind that has internalized social norms. Its principle of operation is morality.
The mental elements we have in awareness at any given time.
Not conscious, but can become available.
The drives, urges, states, and instincts that are beyond our awareness.
What is the only component of our personality present at birth?
The Id has two drives. What are they, and explain.
Eros: Life Energy (survival, procreation, hunger, thirst)
Thanatos: Death Energy (whose function is to assure that the organism shall follow its own path to death)
When does the Ego begin to develop out of the id?
At 6 to 8 months old.
What is the ego developed to cope with?
Real world demands
Where is the ego located?
Conscious and preconscious
The Id operates according to what principle?
Pleasure Principle: Strives to satisfy desires to reduce inner tension.
The ego operates according to what principle?
The reality principle: It must solve real world problems with planned actions (e.g. children who learn to scream to get what they want.)
This is a personality structure shaped by parents and societal moral rules.
What are the two compoenents of the Superego?
2. "Ego Ideal" - ideal persona. "Who do I want to be perceived as?"
When the Ego or Superego do not do their jobs properly, elements of the Id may become visible. What is an example of this?
A Freudian Slip: a psychological error in speaking or writing that reveals something about the person's unconscious
The drives or instincts that influence behavior.
Sexual energy that underlies psychological tension.
What are the five psychosexual stages?
This stage occurs before age one. Infants are driven to satisfy drives of hunger and thirst. The conflict is a child must give up breast feeding. A fixation with attachment and dependency occurs.
This psychosexual stage develops around age two. A child receives pleasure from relieving self of bodily waste. The conflict occurs when the child is toilet trained. A fixation with neatness and organization takes place.
This psychosexual stage occurs around age 4. Sexual energy becomes focused on genitals and and Oedipus or Electra complex can occur. There is a conflict because overt sexual behavior is socially unacceptable. A fixation on vanity, narcissism, and inability to love can occur.
This is the period of about 5 to 11 in which Freud did not note any important psychosexual developments.
Where did Freud believe psychosexual energy was channeled during the Latency stage?
Academic and social pursuits
This psychosexual stage begins in adolescence following puberty. Attention is turned towards heterosexual relationships.
During the Genital stage, activities are thought to include normal sexual relations, marriage, child-rearing, etc. According to Freud, deviations from this were considered what?
Unnatural or flawed.
What are four major concerns with the model of five stages of development?
1. Does not consider homosexual activities as healthy and normal.
2. Studies Males as "normal" and females as "abnormal."
3. Overemphasizes pathology
4. Doesn't recognize important changes during Latency stage
These are ego processes that dirstort reality to protect the individual from anxiety (threatening urges from unconscious)
This is intense apprehension or uncertainty resulting from threatening event or challenge. The ego tries to protect us from this.
This pushes thretening thoughts, memories, and ideas into the unconscious. It's an explanation for post-traumatic stress disorder.
This hides threatening impulses by over-emphasizing their opposite in one's thoughts and explanations.
This can be an explanation for people who express homophobic characteristics and later turn out to be gay.
The refusal to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli.
An explanation for not acknowledging the sudden death of a loved one, or trauma victims responding to an event by not believing it ever happened.
Attributing anxiety-provoking impulse or thoughts on others.
This is an explanation for an unfaithful husband who suspects his wife is cheating
Shifting one's unconscious aggression or fears to a safer target.
This is an explanation for someone having a bad day at work and coming home and kicking the dog.
Dangerous urges are transformed into positive, socially meaningful motivations.
An explanation for artistic creativity, or someone going into community leadership
Protecting the individual by returning to an earlier, "safer" time of life.
An explanation for a new baby sibling wanting a bottle again.
When post-hoc, logical explanation are given for behaviors that were actually driven by internal unconscious motives.
This is an explanation for women who stay in abusive relationships and have explanations as to why, or lying and claiming the lie was to protect the feelings of another person.