An arrangement that consists of people who exercise an effective monoploy in the use of physical force within a given territory.
What does a society need before a state can emerge?
governments & authority.
Conflict theorists view on states role:
A vehicle by which one or more groups impose their values and stratification system upon other groups and depict it as an instrument of violence and oppression.
Functionalist's view on state:
The state is a social instituion that evolved as socities moved from traditional to modern ways.
Functional and conflict theorists both see:
force as the foundation for sovereignty of the state.
Types of government:
1.Totalitrianism- A "total" state in which the government undetakes to control all parts of the society and all aspects of social life.
2. Authoristarnism- A political system in which the government tolerates little of no opposition to it's rules but permits nongovernmental centers of influence and allows debate on issues of public policy.
3. Democracy- A politcal systme in which the powers of government dervice from the consent of the governed and in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials.
4. political power- power that is organized and weilded by the state.
What is authority?
Legitimate power. When people have autority they have recognized and established rights to give orders and act as leaders.
Weber's types of authority:
1. Traditional- power that is legitimated by the sancity og age-old customs.
2. legal-rational- Power that is legitimated by explicit rules and rational procedures that define the rights and duties of the occupants of given positions.
3. charismatic- power that is legitimated by the extrodinary superhuman or supernatural attributes people attribute to a leader.
4. government- Thoese politcal processes that have to do with the authoritative formulation of rules and policies that are binding and pervasice throughout a society.
Who are the power elite?
Corporate executives; military; and high ranking politicians.
Multinational corporations characteristics:
Do not give top priority to the nation in which their head office is located.
No longer need a geogrphical center
depend less and less on the economy of one nation
do not maintain preferential treatment for local employees over any globalk strategy.
World systems theory:
Core nations- Geographical areas that dominate and exploit the rest of the system
periphery nations- provide raw materials and lower-wage workers.
What is alienation?
separation resulting from hostility.
What is marriage?
A socially approved sexual union, between two or more individuals, which is undertaken with some idea of permanence.
What is polygyny?
The marriage of two or more husbands and one wife.
What is polyandry?
The marriage of two or more husbands and two or more wives.
What is endogamy?
The requirment that marriage occur within a group.
What is exogamy?
Teh requirment that marriage occer outside a group.
What is nuclear family?
A family arrangment in which the spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship: blood relatives are functionally marginal and peripheral.
What does the high proportion of couples living together before becoming married suggest?
That this may become institionalized as a new step between dating and marriage.
(5.6 million households today)
Incest. is it ever allowed?
Ancient greeks saw romantic love as?
They believed it to be natural.
Are people marrying on earlier or later than in the past?
What is demography?
The science dealing with the aize, distribution, compostion, and changed in population. It is one of the more exact areas of sociology.
3 ways to affect population size in a given geographical area:
Birth rate, Death rate, Migration (in OR out)
Size of the world's population in 2007?
What is growth rate?
The difference between births and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emagrants per 1,000 population.
What is crude birth rate?
The number of live births per 1,000 members of a population in a given year.
What is ecology?
The study of the interrlations between the living and nonliving components of an ecosystem.
country's with highest expentancy rate:
2. Hong kong china
What is zero population growth?
The point at which a modern population replaces itself without immigration- 2.1 children per woman of childbearing age.
The age and sex composition of population as portrayed in the "tree" of ages.
What is demographic transition?
A view of population change that holds that the process of mdernization passes through three stages: High potential growth, transitional growth, and population stability.
Tomas Malthus view on population:
1. need for food.
2. passion between sexes.
The population would grow faster than the food supply:
food= arithmetic; 1,2,3,4,...
population= geometric; 2,4,6,8,16,32,68....
precent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions come from the united states:
and it's 25%.
what is urban gentrification?
The return of the middle class- usually young, white, childless professionals- to older urban neighborhoods near the city center.
What is social change?
fundeamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure, and social behavior over time.
What factor increases the frequency pf discovery and invention?
What is diffusion?
The process by which culture traits spread from one social unitto another.
What is exponential principle?
As the cultural base increases the possibilites for change multiply. The greater the number of cultural elements on which innovators may draw will increase the frequency of discovery and invention.
What is modernization?
The process by which a society moves from traditional or preindustrial social and economic arrangements to those characteristic of industrial societies.
what is collective behavior?
represent ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that develop among a large number of people and that are relatively spontaneous.
What is social movement?
A more or less presistent and organized effort on the part of a relatively large number of people to bring about or resist change.
Factor for social movement:
Ideology! ( needed for successful social movement.)
What is relative deprivation?
The gap between what people actually have and what they have come to expect and feel to be their "just due"
What is digital divide?
Certain racial and socioeconomic groups in soiety are far less likely to have access to computers and the internet.
Types of social movements:
1. revolutionary- A social movemnt that advocates the replacement of a society's existing value scheme.
2. Reform- A social movement that pursues changes that will implement the existing value scheme of a society more adequately.
3. Resistence- A social movement that arises the block change or eliminate a previously instituted change.
4. expressive movement- A movement that is less concerned with institutional change thatn with a renovating or renewing of people from within.