A & P II Final Review.txt
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Know which gland is considered endocrine gland; which one located on top of kidney and which one stores but does not synthesize hormones.
- 2 kinds of glands:
- -->Exocrine: ducted i.e. sweat, mucous or digestive gland.
- -->Endocrine: ductless
- *Secrete products into interstitial fluid, diffuse into blood.
Endocrine glands include:-Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands.
-Hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta not exclusively endocrine glands, rather contain cells that secret hormones.
Know the Characteristics and actions of water-soluble hormones.
(Slide 18-18 pg 9)
- -Amine Hormones
- -Peptide/ Protein Hormones
- -Eiconsanoid Hormones
- * Water soluble hormone (1st messenger) diffuses from blood.
- -->interstitial fluid--> exterior surface of target cell membrane.
- -->hormone-receptor compex activates G protein (another membrane protein)--> activates adenylate cyclase (interior surface of membrane)
*Adenylate cyclase converts ATP--> cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cytosol.
* cAMP (2nd messenger) activates one or more free or bound protein kinases (enzyme can phosphorylate cellular protein)
Know hormones such as Thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, aldosterone, insulin, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and human growth hormone (HGH).
Growth Hormone releasing hormone (GHRH):
- Thyroid Stimulatin Hormone (TSH):-Hypothalamus regulates thyrotroph cells
- -Thyrotroph cells produce TSH
- -TSH stimulates the synthesis & secretion of T3 and T4
- -Metabolic rate stimulated.
- Parathyroid Hormone: Moves calcium from blood into bone, thus lowering serum calcium level.
- Aldosterone: (Kidney) retains salt in the body by increasing reabsorption from ascending arms of the loops of Henle.
- Insulin: (Many tissue including liver, muscles, and adipose tissue) Lowers blood glucose by promoting cellular uptake of glucose, and the formation of glycogen in liver and muscles, formation and storage of fat in adipose tissue.
(Adenohypophysis/ anterior pituitary) stimulates secretion of growth hormone (GH, somatotropin)
- Human Growth Hormone (HGH): (Most tissues) or somatotropin
- -stimulates secretion of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that promote growth & protein synthesis.
Know human growth hormone is produced by what and inhibited secretion by what?
- * Produced by somatotrophs
- * Inhibited secretion by somatostatin.
Know the components of blood and which is the largest component?
- 55% Plasma
- 45% cells: 99% RBC's < 1% WBC's & platelets
- Hematocrit: percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC's
What is Hemopoiesis (aka Hematopoiesis) and Hematocrit?
- Hemopoiesis (aka Hematopoiesis): the formation of blood cellular components.
- All cellular blood components are derived from haematopoietic stem cells.
percentage of blood volume occupied by RBC's.
- Female normal range: 38-46% (average of 42%)
- Male normal range: 40-54% (average of 47%
- --> Testosterone- stimulate erythropoietin (EPO) that stimulates RBC production.
Where does adult produce red blood cells?
blood cell formation.
Hemoglobin is found in which blood cell?
- Red blood cells or Erythrocytes contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color.
- 1/3 of cell's weight is hemoglobin.
What is the function of erythropoietin and where is it secreted from?
- The human kidney secretes two hormones:
- Erythropoietin (EPO)
- Calcitriol (1,25[OH]2 Vitamin D3)
- Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein. It acts on the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells.
- Erythropoietin (EPO): A hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. EPO is a glycoprotein (a protein with a sugar attached to it). Human EPO has a molecular weight of 34,000.
Know which are granular and agranular leukocytes?
- WBC Anatomy and Types:All WBC's (leukocytes) have a nucleus and no hemoglobin
- Granular or agranular classification based on presence of cytoplasmic granules made visible by staining
- granulocytes are: neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils.
- agranulocytes are: monocytes or lymphocytes.
Which WBC (Leukocyte) is the fast one to respond a bacterial infection?
- Neutrophil Function:
- Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria
- Direct actions against bacteria
- -release lysozymes which destroy/digest bacteria
- -release defensin proteins that act like antibiotics & poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them.
- -release strong oxidants (bleach-like, strong chemicals) that destroy bacteria.
What blood type is considered a true "universal donor"?
Universal Donors and Recipients:
- -People with type AB blood called "universal recipients" since have no antibodies in plasma.
- --only true if cross match the blood for other antigens.
- -People with type O blood cell called "universal donors" since have no antigens on their cells.
- --theoretically can be given to anyone.
During the 2nd pregnancy the mother with which blood type (Rh + or -) will have high chance to place the Rh (+) fetus at risk?
In 2nd child, hemolytic disease of the newborn may develop causing hemolysis of the fetal RBC's.
- -- Rh(-) mom and Rh(+) fetus will have mixing blood at birth.
- -Mom's body creates Rh antibodies unless she receives a RhoGam shot soon after first delivery, miscarriage or abortion.
- -->RhoGam binds to loose fetal blood and removes it from body before she reacts.
Know what type of antibodies (not antigens) present in the different blood type (i.e. A,B,AB,O)?
Blood Groups and Blood types
- Antibodies in Plasma--> (Anti-B)
- Antigens in RBC--> (A antigen)
- -Type B (RBC type)
- Antibodies in Plasma--> (Anti-A)
- Antigens in RBC--> (B antigen)
- -Type AB (RBC type)
- Antibodies in Plasma--> (None)
- Antigens in RBC--> (A and B antigens)
- -Type O (RBC type
- Antibodies in Plasma--> (Anti-A and Anti-B)
- Antigens in RBC--> (None)
Know all the valves that are in and out of heart including names and location of in or out.
Right atrioventricular Valve (tricuspid): The tricuspid valve lies in between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid): The bicuspid valve lies in between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Pulmonary Valve: The pulmonary valve lies in between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.
Aortic Valve: The aortic valve lies in between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Know 2 blood circulations especially the veins or arteries carrying oxygenated or deoxygenated blood (reference slide 20-27: remember this slide)
- 1. Right Atrium (deoxygenated blood)
- -->Tricuspid valve
- 2. Right Ventricle
- --> Pulmonary seminular Valve
- 3. Pulmonary trunk and Pulmonary arteries.
- 4. In Pulmonary capillaries blood loses CO2 and gains O2.
- 5. Pulmonary Veins (oxygenated blood) (systemic circulation: brings blood to neck & head & to organs in the rest of the body).
- 6. Left Atrium
- --> Bicuspid Valve
- 7. Left Ventricle
- --> Aortic seminular Valve
- 8. Aorta and systemic arteries.
- 9. In Systemic Capillaries blood loses O2 & gains CO2.
- 10. Superior Vena Cava- Inferior Vena Cava- Coronary Sinus.
Know the major structure of heart i.e. the name of membrane covering the heart and difference of myocardial thickness of ventricles and atriums.
Heart is located in the Mediastinum: area from the sternum to the vertebral column and between the lungs.
- *Fibrous pericardium:
- - dense irregular CT
- - protects and anchors the heart, prevents over-stretching.
- *Serous pericardium:
- - thin delicate membrane
- - contains: parietal layer- outer layer-, pericardial cavity with pericardial fluid, visceral layer (epicardium)
- Myocardial Thickness and Function:
- Thickness of myocardium varies according to the function of the chamber.
- - Atria are thin walled, deliver blood to adjacent ventricles.
- - Ventricle walls are much thicker and stronger.
- -right ventricle supplies blood to the lungs (little flow resistance)
- -left ventricle wall is the thickest to supply systemic circulation.
- -Myocardium of left ventricle is much thicker than the right.
Know the heart conduction sequence.
- 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node
- 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node
- 3. Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His)
- 4. Right and Left bundle branches.
- 5. Conduction Myofibers (Purkinje Fibers)
- * Autorhythmic Cells- Cells fire spontaneously, act as pacemaker and form conduction system for the heart.
- * Sinoatrial (SA) node
- - Cluster of cells in wall of Rt. Atria
- - begins heart activity that spreads to both atria.
- - excitation spreads to AV node.
- * Atrioventricular (AV) node:
- - in atrial septum, transmits signal to bundle of His.
- * AV bundle of His
- - the connection between atria and ventricles
- - divides into right/left bundle branches & purkinje fibers, large diamter fibers that conduct signals quickly.
Know the name of different sizes of arteries from the largest to smallest then change into smallest veins to largest size of vein.
- Elastic- Largest in diameter (helps propel blood onward despite ventricular relaxation.
- Muscular-Medium-sized. More muscle than elastic fibers in tunica media. (called distributing arteries because they have direct blood flow)
- Arterioles-Small arteries delivering blood to capillaries.
- venules-small in size. Collects blood from capillaries
Know the structure difference between arteries and veins (i.e. no valve vs. valve, muscular thickness).
- Veins valved
- Arteries No valve
Which is the largest artery of the body?
Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues.
An abnormal increase in interstitual fluid if filtration exceeds reabsorption.
Know the hepatic portal circulation and which organs involve?
is capillaries of GI tract to capillaries in liver
Know fetal circulation i.e. oxygenated and deoxygenated blood circulating route.
- Oxygen from placenta reaches heart via fetal veins in umbilical cord.
- -bypasses liver
- Heart pumps oxygenated blood to capillaries in all fetal tissues including lungs.
- Umbilical arteries (branch off iliac arteries) return blood to placenta
Know arteries of the upper and lower extremity.
- 4 Major divisions of aorta
- -ascending aorta
- -arch of aorta
- -thracic aorta
- -abdominal aorta
Ascending -2 coronary arties supple myocardium
Arch of - branches to the arms and head
Thoracic- supplies branches to pericardium, esophagus, bronchi, diaphram, intercostal and ches muscles, mammary gland , skin, vertebrae and spinal cord.
Abdominal Aorta- supples abdominal and pelvic viscera and lower extremities.
Know organs involve lymphatic system.
the spleen and the thymus
Which 2 pumps promote flow of lymphatic fluid?
Respiratory and muscular pumps
Know lymphatic vessels empty into where?
Know what type of cells that lymph nodes contain including cortex (inner/outer) and medulla.
Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T and other immune cells. Lymph nodes act as filters or traps for foreign particles and are important in the proper functioning of the immune system. They are packed tightly with the white blood cells called lymphocytes and macrophages.
Know the lymph flow direction in the lymph node.
- Afferent-Inward Direction
- Efferent-Outward Direction
Know signs of inflammation.
Know the difference between ulcers and abscesses.
- Ulcers-Open sore
- Abscess-is accumulation of pus in a confined space not opened to the ourside (pimples and boils)
Know the difference between T and B cells i.e. effective against, location of mature and mediated immunity response.
- T=intercellular, mature in thymus, protects/attacks virus' and cancer directly
- B=extrocellular, Bone cells, Kills bacterias, generates antibodies.
Which endocrine gland becomes atrophy as change from infant to adult?
Know the difference between infected lymph nodes and cancerous lymph nodes.
Infected lymph nodes- This then becomes a case of lymph node infection. The swelling is generally manifest in the groin, underarm and other rather delicate areas. The swelling can occur owing to something as general as a throat infection and as malicious as carcinoma. Infection of lymph nodes can ramify into the anterior as well as posterior regions.
Canerous lymph nodes-Lymph node cancer is a form of cancer that involves your lymphatic system, which is a very important part of your body's immune system. There are 2 forms of lymph node cancer:
Hodgkins Disease is one form of lymph node cancer that almost everyone has heard of.
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is the second type of lymph node cancer. This is what the majority of lymph node cancer is.
Where are Peyer's patches (aggregated lymphatic nodules) found?
Know the most important T-cell:
Which cell is stimulated by T- helper to produce antibodies?
_ are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such asviruses, bacteria, parasites or tumorcells. They allow for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors.
Know the function of nasopharynx.
It is the Passageway for air
Know the difference of function between Type I ant Type II alveolar cells.
- Type I-Gas Exchange
- Type II-Secretes surfactant
Know the quiet expiration (normal expiration): passive or forceful and requiring muscle or not.
- Passive/quiet- Passive process with no muscle action, Elastic recoil & surface tension in alveoli pulls inward, Alveolar pressure increases & air is pushed out
- Forceful-abdominal mm force diaphragm up, internal intercostals depress ribs
What will be the consequences when diaphragm contracts i.e. chest cavity, inthoracic pressure, air moving into or out of lung, and lung size?
During normal quiet inhalation, the diaphragm descends about1 cm (0.4 in.), producing a pressure difference of 1–3 mmHgand the inhalation of about 500 mL of air. In strenuous breathing,the diaphragm may descend 10 cm (4 in.), which producesa pressure difference of 100 mmHg and the inhalation of2–3 liters of air. Contraction of the diaphragm is responsible forabout 75% of the air that enters the lungs during quiet breathing
Know the branching of Trachea tree.
- Branches of the bronchial tree
- Trachea>Primary Bronchi>Secondary Bronchi>Tertiary Bronchi>Bronchioles>Terminal Bronchioles
Know the sequence of GI tract (Canal) (from mouth to rectum).
- Mouth - bite, chew and swallow
- Pharynx and Esophagus - transport
- Stomach - mechanical, disruption, absorption of water and alcohol
- Small Intestines - chemical & mechanical digestion and absorption
- Large Intestines - absorption of electrolytes & vitamins (B and K)
- Rectum and Anus - defecation
The functions of stomach.
1. Mixes saliva, food and gastric juice to form chyme.
- 2. Serves as a reservoir for food before release into small intestine.
- 3. Secretes gastrin into blood.
4. Secretes gastric juice contains HCl(kills bacteria and denatures protein), pepsin(begins the digestion of protein), intrinsic factor(absorption of vitamin B12), gastric lipase(digestion of trigycerides)
Which cell protect stomach walls from being digested and how?
The surface mucous cell and the surface neck cell
The function of intrinsic factor.
The absorption of Vitamin B12 for RBC production.
Know the 4 layers of GI tract from outer to inner layers.
- 1. Mucosal Layer
- 2. Submucosal Layer
- 3. Muscularis Layer
- 4. Serosa Layer
Peritoneum has 2 types of layer, know the difference.
- Peritoneum - visceral layer covers organs
- - parietal layer lines walls of body cavity
- potential space containing a bit of serous fluid
The enzymes in the saliva and their functions.
Amylase - begins starch digestion at pH of 6.5 or 7.0 found in the mouth.
The functions of gastrin (from G cell)
* a harmone - is to "get it out of here".
- - releases more gastric juice
- - increase gastric motility
- - relax pyloric sphincter
- - contrict esophageal sphincter preventing entry
The name of the structure of gastric mucosa folds.
Know the functions of pyloric sphincter.
The pyloric sphincter controls the rate of flow of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
The functions of gastric HCi?
Gastric HCl - kills microbes in food.
What nutrients can be absorbed by the stomach?
- Water - cold water
- Some drugs and alcohol.
- Vitamin B-12 (glycoprotein - intrinsic factor)
The entry and exit of stomach
The entry of the stomach is known as the Esophageal Sphincter
The exit of the stomach is known as the Pyloric Sphincter
Where does the protein digestion begin?
The digestion of protein begins the stomach.
Pancreas function as an endocrine, an exocrine or both?
- The pancreas releases hormones glucagon and insulin into the blood stream like all other endocrine organs, but also releases digestive enzymes into the intestine; since the intestine is considered 'outside' that is an exocrine function.
- These digestive enzymes are:
- _ pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, proteases
- _ ribonuclease - to digest nucleic acids
- _ deoxyribonuclease
The function, location and draining (to where) of gall bladder.
The gallbladder is located on the right lobe of the liver.
The Gallbladder is composed:
The fondus, the base, sits right on the liver and the neck is the narrow place where the contents of the gallbladder drain into the cystic duct, on the way to the intestine.
- The functions of the Gallbladder:-It stores and concentrates bile, a liquid that the body uses to digest fat and neutralize acid
- -secrete extra bile to help with digestion.
The function, structure and segments of small intestine.
- * Large area mainly for absorption
- * 20 feet long -1 inch in diameter
- * 3 Parts
- - The Deodunum -10inches
- - The Jejunum - 3-6feet (empty)
- - The Ileum - 6-12feet ( ends at the ileocecal valve(sphincter)).
What does large intestine absorb the most?
The hormone can relax muscles of stomach and intestine to decrease blood flow:
What is the end product of protein digestion?
From which system do the digested fatty acids enter the blood stream? (Hint: slide 24-83)
The Lymphatic System
The sequence (order) of flow of chyme (from ileocecal valve to anus).
- Ascending Colon - from the Ileocecal Sphincter(valve) to the right colic(hepatic) flexure
- Transverse Colon - from the right colic(hepatic) flexure to the left colic(splenic) flexure
- Decseneding Colon - from the left colic(splenic) flexure to the sigmoid colon
- Sigmoid Colon
- Anus Canal
The function of CCK.
A digestive harmone - signals the gallbladder to secrete extra bile to help with digestion.
The blood supply to liver.
- 1._ The hepatic portal vein(de-oxygenated)
- _ The hepatic artery from a branch of the Aorta( oxygenated)
2. Liver Sinusoids
3. Central Vein
4. Hepatic Vein
5. Inferior Vena Cava
6. Right Atrium of the Heart
The intestinal enzyme for digesting fat.
Where do the common bile duct and pancreatic duct empty to?
Where is the location of appendix (attaching to)?
The appendix is located at the lower right quadrant of the abdomen and is attached at the cecum of the (ascending) colon.
What are the functions of kidney?
- * Removing wastes and water from the blood.
- * Balancing chemicals in your body.
- * Releasing hormones.
- * Helping control blood pressure.
- * Helping to produce RBC's.
- * Producing vitamin D, which keeps the bones strong and healthy.
- Chapter 26 (slide 26-2)
- *Regulation of blood ionic composition
- -Na+, K+, Ca+2, C1- and phosphate (HPO4 2-) ions
- *Regulation of blood pH, osmolarity & glucose
- *Regulation of blood volume
- -->conserving or eliminating water.
- *Regulation of blood pressure.
- -->secreting the enzyme renin
- -->adjusting renal resistance (increase renin leads increase BP)
- *Release of erythropoietin & calcitriol (an active form of Vitamin D- 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3)
- *regulation of blood glucose level
- -->use glutamine via gluconeogenesis produce glucose
- *Excretion of wastes & foreign substances.
Know the flow of fluid through a nephron. (hint: slide 26-13)
- * 80-85% of nephrons are cortical nephrons
- * Renal corpuscles are in outer cortex and loops of Henle lie mainly in cortex.
- Flow of Fluid through a Cortical Nephron:
- 1.Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
- 2. Proximal convoluted tubule
- 3. Descending limb of the loop of Henle
- 4. ascending limb of the loop of Henle
- 5. Distal convoluted tubule (drains into collecting duct)
When is considered kidney disfunction?
Dysfunction is not evident until function declines by 25% of normal.
Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons, causing them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons can happen quickly, often as the result of injury or poisoning. But most kidney diseases destroy the nephrons slowly and silently. Only after years or even decades will the damage become apparent. Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys simultaneously.The two most common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. People with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease.
Know the tube drain the urine from kidney to the bladder.
What are gametes?
- Sperm cellsand egg cells
- (sperm and secondary oocyte)
Know the function of epididymis.
- -Site of sperm maturation
- -->motility increases over 2 week period
- -Storage for 1-2 months
- -Propels sperm onward
What is direct hernia?
Loop of intestine pushes through posterior wall of inguinal canal.
Know the broad ligament is a sheet of peritoneum.
Broad ligament (a sheet of peritoneum) suspends uterus from side wall of pelvis.
Know uterine tube location, function and structure.
- Uterine or Fallopian Tubes:Narrow, 4 inch tube extends from ovary to uterus.
- -Infundibulum is open, funnel-shaped portion near the ovary.
- ---> fimbrae are moving finger-like processes.
- -ampulla is central region tube.
- -isthmus is narrowest portion joins uterus.
Know 3 layers of uterus (from inner to outer layer).
1. Endometrium(inner): simple columnar epithelium. Stroma of connective tissue and endometrial glands. 2. Myometrium -3 layers of smooth muscle 3. Perimetrium(outer): -visceral peritoneum
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