Micro Exam 4

Card Set Information

Author:
jchampio
ID:
146482
Filename:
Micro Exam 4
Updated:
2012-04-11 22:07:36
Tags:
micro exam
Folders:

Description:
microbiology exam 4
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jchampio on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the Virulence Factors for Staph Auresus

    Staphylococcus Auresus
    • Virulence Factors: most eleaborate of all pathogens.
    • - Coagulase: causes blood clots (protection from WBCs)- Staphylokinase: degrades blood clots (invasion)
    • - Hyaluronidase: degrades hyaluronic acid (invasion)
    • - Lipase: degrades lipids (invasion)
    • -DNase: degrades DNA (pus viscosity)
    • -Hemolysins: lyse RBCs Leukocidin: pore forming heterodimer that lyses neutrophils (prophage-lysogen) [Superantigen]
    • - Leukocidinase: spore foring heterodimer that lyses netrophilis(prophage- lysogen)
    • - cytokines: TNF alpha taht can lead to systemic inflammation
    • - enterotoxins: inflame intestinal wall (food poisoning)
    • - exfoliative toxins: protease causing exfoliation
    • - Toxic Shock: (exotoxin) super antigen (tampon use)
    • - Catalase: antioxidant
    • Staphyloantihin: antioxidant
  2. what is the sources for Staph Auresus
    human skin and mucus membrane
  3. What are the Diseases for Staph Auresus
    1. Localized Cutaneous Infections

    - folliculitis: superficial infection of hair follicles ( hidrandenitis- glands)

    - Furuncle (boil): involvement of sub-Q which causes carbuncle (interconnecte furuncle)

    - Impetigo: scalded skin syndrome

    2. Systemic Infections:

    - ostiomyelitis: colonization of the bone (fever, chills, pain, muscle spasms)

    • - pneumonia: rare but 50% fatal (mostly those with CF/Measles/flu in elderly)[symptoms: fever, chest pain, bloody sputum]
    • - bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood stream) which can cause endocarditis (infection of the heart)
    • - Meningitis: entry into "cranial vault" (severe)
  4. what are the clinical concerns of Staph Auresus
    • antibiotic resistance
    • - penicillinase: degrades penicillin
    • - methicillin resistant: altered penicillin, binding protein, resistant to beta lactams
    • - aminoglycosides: aminoglycoside modification, ribosomal modification, efflux mutations
  5. what is the treatment for Staph Auresus
    • local infections: perforation and cleaning
    • systemic infections: long term antibiotics (respond slowly to antibiotics)

    • antibiotics that are effective:
    • 1st try methacillin

    2nd try vancomycin

    3rd zygots (as a last resort)
  6. what is the source for Strep pyogenes: streptococcus pyogen
    • human are the only significant reservoir, direct contact, and droplets (coughing)
    • - summer skin infections and in winter its in the throat
  7. Name the virulence factors for streptococcus pyogenes :strep pyogenes
    - C carbohydrates: they allow the disease to group into a,b,c. Counteracts the antibodies taht produce lysozyme

    • - Lipoteichoic acids & Protien F: adherence to epithial cells (if the bacterium can adhere to the epithelial cells then they stick to you instead of flowing out during coughing etc.
    • - M Protein
    • - Hyaluronic acid: the composition of the capsule allows it to invade the immune system and it can go into connective tissue and hide, which does not trigger your immune system to fight it.
    • -C5a protease: pokes holes in the cell membrane and the membrane will die
    • -Exotoxins: strepolysin O: causes hemolysis of the RBCs
    • -Exotoxins: streptolysin S: effects the heart
    • both exotoxins over stimulate the helper T cells
    • -Erythrogenic toxins: encoated by a virus and that virus has to be intergraded into that chromosome and then that makes it even more toxic. it also over stimulates the helper t cells which can injure the blood vessels, make it easier for bacteria to enter blood cells and cause toxic shock.
  8. what are the disease caused by streptococcus pyogenes :strep pyogenes ?
    • - Impeigo: burning itching skin infection: highly contagiuos yellow crust
    • - streptococcal pharyngitis: strep throat, swollen/tender tonsils perphaps with fever, headache, nausea
    • - Scarlet Fever: rash and high fever
  9. what are the clincial concerns for streptococcus pyogenes :strep pyogenes ?
    • - antibotic resistant
    • - auto immune rheumatic fever
    • -acute glomerulon ephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli of the nephrons: kidneys)
    • - septicemia ( movement of bacteria fro the lymph to the blood)
    • - Toxic Shock
    • -Multiple organ failure
  10. what is the treatment for streptococcus pyogenes :strep pyogenes
    Penicillin
  11. what are the sources for n. gonorrheae. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae ?
    Strictly humans through sex
  12. what are the virulence factors for n. gonorrheae. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae?
    • Pilli: attachment
    • Phagocytosis (allows t to attach to mucus membranes)
  13. what are the diseases caused by n. gonorrheae. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae?
    • Men: yellow discharge, infections of prostate and epididymis where scar tissue can lead to infertility, uritritis, painful urination
    • Women: bloody vaginal discharge, painful urination, can move into cervix/uterus/fallopain tubes, pelvic inflammatory disease, scaring, infertility, etopic pregnancy

    Both: conjunctivitis in the eye, which can lead to blindness (silver nitrat in newborns)
  14. what are the clinical concerns for n. gonorrheae. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae?
    asymptomatic in large number of people
  15. what is the treatment for n. gonorrheae. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae?
    broad spectrum antibotics


    also know secretory major immunoglobulin on mucus membranes
  16. spore forming rods
    B. Authracis; Bacillus Anthracis
  17. What are the sources of B. Authracis. Bacillus Antrhacis?
    Soil, biological weapons
  18. what are the virulence factors for B. Authracis. Bacillus Antrhacis
    spores form under all growth conditions, proteins capsule and free living in the soil and protein capsule (inhibits photosis various exotoxins)
  19. whare are the diseases of B. Authracis. Bacillus Antrhacis?
    • cutaneous antrax (means skin, scabs)
    • Pulmonary antrax (involves the lungs)
  20. what are the clinical concerns for B. Authracis. Bacillus Antrhacis?
    none
  21. what is the treatment for B. Authracis. Bacillus Antrhacis?
    • cutaneous antrax: self-limiting no treatment necessary
    • pulmonary antrax: there is no treatment you just die
  22. spore formers
    C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens
  23. what is the source for C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens?
    wide spread anaerobic spore fromer found in soil, human ski, human intestine and capillaries
  24. what are teh virulence factors for C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens?
    • - collagenase: degrades collagen in connective tissue
    • - Hyaluronidase: degrades hyuronic acid which is in connective tissue
    • - Flaginase
    • - Alpha Toxin (destroy red blood cells)
    • - DNase
  25. what are the diseases for C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens?
    gas gangrene: symptoms: pain edema, bloody exudates, which can lead to fever, tachycardia, gas filled bubbles, blackened tissue "foul smelling" can either be local (restricted to the damaged area) or invasive (infection moves into healthy tissue)
  26. what are the clinical concerns for C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens?
    • surgery, compound factures, diabetic ulcers, septic abortions, puncture/gunshot wounds, and crushing injuries
    • - Gas Gangreneous uterus following septic abortion: clostridial septicemia often fatal
  27. what is the treatment for C. perfrignens. Clostridium perfringens
    cleaing the wound, debridement (oxygen access) large doses of broad spectrum antibotics, Hyperbaric therapy ( involves elevated concentration of oxygen)
  28. what are the sources for P. Aevugenosa: Pseudomonas Aerugenosa
    soils, fresh and salt water, in the intestine of normal people in sponges and hot tubs
  29. what are the virulence factors for P. Aevugenosa: Pseudomonas Aerugenosa ?
    numorous extracelluar enzymes ( make organism more invasive), resistance to soaps, disinfectants, drugs, drying out (found on disinfected ventilators and anesthesia equipment)
  30. what are the diseases for P. Aevugenosa: Pseudomonas Aerugenosa ?
    urinary tract infections, external ear infections, opportunistic infection in burn victims (grape like odor)
  31. what are the clinical concerns for P. Aevugenosa: Pseudomonas Aerugenosa ?
    metabolically diverse, resistant to many metabolic antibiotics (basically eats the antibiotics which makes them ineffective)
  32. what ist the treatment for P. Aevugenosa: Pseudomonas Aerugenosa ?
    it is sensitive to some broad spectrum antibiotics, debreading (scrub with brishled brush)
  33. what are the sources for E. Coli/Escherchia Coli ?
    feces from another human being or cattle
  34. what are the virulence factors for E. Coli/Escherchia Coli ?
    shiga toxin gene
  35. what are the diseases for E. Coli/Escherchia Coli ?
    urinary tract infections, meningitis, specticemia, and wound infections and gastro intestinal infections including dysentery and wasting in newborns
  36. what are the clinical concerns for E. Coli/Escherchia Coli ?
    • less severe illnesses can turn into more severe illnesses, like UTI can turn into meningitis.
    • - there are 150 different strains
  37. what is the treatment for E. Coli/Escherchia Coli ?
    Broad spectrum antibiotics
  38. what are the sources for Salmonella/ Salmonella Typhimurium ?
    chicken and chicken products
  39. what are the virulence factors for Salmonella/ Salmonella Typhimurium?
    none in particular
  40. what are the diseases for Salmonella/ Salmonella Typhimurium?
    severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea
  41. what are the clinical concerns for Salmonella/ Salmonella Typhimurium?
    none
  42. what is the treatment for Salmonella/ Salmonella Typhimurium?
    self-limiting
  43. what are the sources for Y. Pestis/Yersinia Pestis ?
    fleas that feed off of rodents
  44. what are the virulence factors for Y. Pestis/Yersinia Pestis ?
    capable of pandemic
  45. what are the diseases for Y. Pestis/Yersinia Pestis ?
    the plague, bubonic plague, the black death
  46. what are the clinical concerns for Y. Pestis/Yersinia Pestis ?
    already demonstrated the ability to cause a world wide epidemic called a pandemic
  47. what is the treatment for Y. Pestis/Yersinia Pestis ?
    broad spectrum antibiotics
  48. what are the sources of Chlamydia. Chlamydia Trachomatis
    humans: vaginal, anal and oral sex
  49. what are the virulence factors for Chlamydia trachomatis ?
    none
  50. what are the diseases for Chlamydia trachomatis?
    • epidymitis in men
    • pelvic inflammatory disease in women
    • conjunctivitis in both men and women which can lead to blindness and rheumatoid arthritis
  51. what are the clinical concerns for Chlamydia trachomatis ?
    • auto- immune rheumatoid arthritis
    • asymptomatic in a large number of people
  52. what is the treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis ?
    broad spectrum antibiotics
  53. what are the sources of Syphilis/Treponema Pallium ?
    only through sex
  54. what are the virulence factors for Syphilis/Treponema Pallium?
    none
  55. what are the disease of Syphilis/Treponema Pallium?
    • - Primary Syphilis (chancres in the body)
    • - Secondary Syphilis (rash)
    • - Latent syphilis (no symptoms)
    • - Tertiary Syphilis (involves the brain and the heart)
  56. What are the clinical concerns for Syphilis/Treponema Pallium?
    • it gets more and more severe through the stages
    • - Latent stage where people are asymptomatic
  57. what is the treatment for Syphilis/Treponema Pallium?
    broad spectrum antibiotics
  58. what is the source for Candidia Albican/Candidiasis ?
    20% of healthy women
  59. what are the virulence factors for Candidia Albican/Candidiasis?
    none
  60. what are the diseases for Candidia Albican/Candidiasis?
    oral thrush, and vaginitis (yeast infections)
  61. what are the clinical concerns for Candidia Albican/Candidiasis?
    caused by detergents and hormal/physiological disruption of normal flora and anitbioic use
  62. what is the treatment for Candidia Albican/Candidiasis?
    Antimycotics
  63. what are the source for Trichomoniasis/ Trichomonas Vaginalis ?
    other humans through sex
  64. what are the virulence factors for Trichomoniasis/ Trichomonas Vaginalis ??
    none
  65. what are the disease for Trichomoniasis/ Trichomonas Vaginalis ?
    Trichomiasis
  66. what are the clincial concerns for Trichomoniasis/ Trichomonas Vaginalis ??
    • can be dormant for many years without any symptoms (asymptomatic)
    • - you have increase frisk of HIV and prostate cancer
    • - Targets premies
  67. what are the sources for HPV/Human papillomavirus ?
    other humans through sex, Warts, and genital warts
  68. what is the virulence factor for HPV/Human papillomavirus?
    they are viruses
  69. what are the diseases of HPV/Human papillomavirus?
    Warts, Genital Warts, Cervical Cancer
  70. what are the clinical concerns for HPV/Human papillomavirus?
    • cervical cancer
    • - latency
  71. what is the treatment for HPV/Human papillomavirus?
    none
  72. ages 20- 24 has the highest prevulance
    overall age for prevulance is about 25%
    HPV/Human papillomavirus
  73. what are sources for HSV/Herpes Simplex Virus?
    • 2 different strains HSV1 and HSV2
    • sources: human sex, close contact with moist secretions (including kissing)
    • - HSV1: causes cold sores
    • - HSV2: causes genital lesions
  74. what are the virulence factors for HSV/Herpes Simplex Virus?
    none other than it is a virus
  75. what are the diseases for HSV/Herpes Simplex Virus?
    fever blisters, cold sores or genital lesions
  76. what are the clinical concerns for HSV/Herpes Simplex Virus?
    latency
  77. what is the treatment for HSV/Herpes Simplex Virus
    Valtex
  78. wat are the sources for Hepatitis B
    other humans through sex, close contact, moist secretions, and blood products
  79. what are the virulence factors for Hep. B
    none other than it is a virus
  80. what are the diseases for Hep. B?
    • - Acute (liver inflammation)
    • -Chronic (cirrhosis of liver, liver cancer)
  81. what are the clinical concerns for Hep B?
    • the acute can lead to the chronic infections which can cause death
    • - it can be asymptomatic
  82. what is the treatment for Hep B
    • - Acute: self-limiting
    • - Chronic: Epivir
  83. what is the source for HIV ?
    other humans through bodily secretions
  84. what are the virulence factors for HIV?
    its a virus
  85. what is the disease(s) for HIV?
    AIDS
  86. what are the clincal concerns for HIV?
    • - long contagious period during which is asymptomatic
    • - kills 90% in ten years
    • - infects cells of the immune system results in lethal secondary infections
    • - because it replicates using reverse transcriptase it mutates faster than the immune system can respond
  87. what is the treatment for HIV?
    none
  88. what is the treatment for Trichomonas Vaginalis/Trichomoniasis
    Flagyl
  89. what is the treatment for N. Gonorrhea?
    broad spectrum antibiotics

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview