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  1. 2 functions of the respiratory system
    • 1. gas exchange
    • 2. voice production
  2. gas exchange
    • our body needs oxygen to survive and needs to get rid of it's wastes (carbon dioxide) as well.
    • cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to provide the body with oxygen an rid the body of carbon dioxide.
    • respiratory system is involved in the gas exchange between blood and the eternal environment and the transportation of these gases is provided for by the cardiovascular system.
    • gases follow the laws of simple diffusion; they flow from high to low pressure
  3. organs of the respiratory system
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • lungs (alveoli)
  4. Where does gas exchange take place?
    • alveoli
    • all of the other organs of the respiratory system are just "conducting passages" that get the air to the alveoli.
  5. What is the function of the conducting passages on the way to the alveoli?
    These conducting passages purify, humidify, and warm the incoming air.
  6. What are the "conducting passages" of the respiratory system?
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
  7. Nose
    the only externally visible part of repiratory system
  8. The air enters nose through the _______.
  9. pathway of air from the nose
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
    • glottis
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • primary bronchi
    • 2' bronchi
    • 3' bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
  10. pathway of air from the mouth
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
    • glottis
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • primary bronchi
    • 2' bronchi
    • 3' bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
  11. nasal cavity
    • where the air enters into.
    • the olfactory receptors for smell are located in the roof of this cavity
    • separated from the oral cavityby the hard and soft palate
  12. mucosa
    the lining of the inside of the nose
  13. function of the mucosa
    • rests on a network of veins that warms the air as it comes in to the nose (nosebleeds common because these veins are right underneath the thin mucosa)
    • mucus traps dust and bacteria
    • ciliated cells move mucus to the back of the throat and we swallow it
  14. What happens in the nose when it gets cold?
    cilia become sluggish and mucus builds up in the nose and dribbles out
  15. uvula
    • the thing that hangs down in the back of your throat
    • when you swallow, it moves upwards and closes off the nasopharynx so food and liquids don't go up into your nose
  16. pharynx
    • throat
    • muscular passageway
    • common passageway for air and food
  17. 3 regions of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  18. pathway of food and air through the pharynx
    • mouth, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus (food), trachea (air)
    • or
    • nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, trachea
  19. larynx
    voice box
  20. function of the larynx
    • route food and air in to the proper channels
    • produce speech
  21. glottis
    superior opening to the larynx
  22. epiglottis
    cartilage flap that is open when we are breathing, but closes over the opening of the trachea if we are swallowing to keep food out of the trachea and lungs
  23. trachea
    • windpipe
    • lined with ciliated mucosa
    • cilia propel mucus (loaded with dust and particles) upwards away from the lungs
    • rigid because it has c-shaped cartilage rings to prevent collapsing
  24. primary bronchi
    first divisions of the trachea.... one going to the left and one to the right lung
  25. 2' bronchus and 3' bronchus
    after the primary bronchi enter the lungs they divide into secondary and tertiary bronchi, smaller and smaller branches
  26. bronchioles
    • the smallest of the conducting passagaways
    • terminate into the alveoli
  27. alveoli
    • air sacs lined with many capillaries
    • where gas exchange takes place
    • millions of them
    • look like bunches of grapes
    • the walls are very thin (thinner than tissue paper)
    • the surface area of the walls is 1/2 a tennis court
    • functional units of the lungs
  28. What does the respiratory membrane consist of?
    • alveolar walls
    • capillary walls
    • basal lamina
  29. surfactant
    • special cells in the alveolar walls produce this substance
    • substance which coats the outside of the alveoli
    • reduces the surface tension of the alveoli keeping them from collapsing
  30. infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
    a baby that is born prematurely has alveoli which do not produce enough surfactant and experience IRDS where their alveoli will collapse because of not enough surfactant, and therefore high surface tension
  31. lungs
    large spongy organ that occupies almost the entire thoracic cavity
  32. how many lobes in each lung?
    the left lund is divided into 2 lobes, the right lung is divided into 3 lobes.
  33. pleura / pleural membrane
    • Both the thoracic cavity and the lungs are lined by this serous membrane that produces serous fluid
    • a double layered serous membrane that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of the thoracic cavity serous fluid between the layers
  34. serous fluid
    allows the lungs to glide easily over the walls of the thorax during breathing
  35. gas exchange/ high to low concentration
    You take in a deep breath of air which goes into your lungs and fills the alveoli. This air is oxygen rich, as a matter of fact there is much more oxygen in the air in the alveoli than there is in the blood of the capillaries surrounding the alveoli. So, the oxygen will want to move out of the alveoli and in to the blood in the capillaries. Likewise, if the air in the alveoli is oxygen rich, that means it doesn't have much carbon dioxide... so the carbon dioxide from the blood in the capillaries will move out of the blood and into the alveoli so when we exhale it gets out of the body... so the blood in the capillaries has now gotten rid of its carbon dioxide and picked up oxygen... it will now go back to the right atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins.
  36. How is air filtered?
    by nose hairs also by the ciliated epithelium lining the respiratory tract with mucus
  37. Breathing depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity.
    Volume changes lead to pressure changes... if the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, the pressure will decrease. Likewise, if the volume in the thoracic cavity decreases, the pressure inside will increase.
  38. Inspiration
    air is flowing into the lungs
  39. Mechanics of inspiration
    when we take in a breath, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases (rib cage expands and the diaphragm depresses) which causes the pressure inside the thoracic cavity to decrease (and also the pressure inside the lungs decreases). So now, the pressure outside our body is higher than the pressure inside the lungs ... so air wants to move from high pressure to low pressure ... so air moves into the lungs.
  40. exhalation
    when we physically let our rib cage fall back to its normal position and our diaphragm also comes back up, this decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity again which increases the pressure inside the thoracic cavity and the lungs and pushes the air out of the lungs.
  41. pneumothorax
    • presence of air in the intrapleural space caused by a puncture. In order to fix this, air must be drawn out of the intrapleural space with a chest tube to restore the vacuum and then close the hole.
    • when air at atmospheric pressure gets into the plural cavity causes lungs to collapse
    • caused by trauma or pneumonia
  42. respiratory volumes
    • concered with how much air is flushed into and out of the lungs.
    • They can give us information about a person's respiratory status.
    • measured with spirometer
  43. tidal volume (TV)
    the amount of air moving into and out of the lungs during a normal quiet breath (about 500ml)
  44. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    • the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled over and above TV
    • taking a deep breath
    • IRV ~ 3000ml
  45. expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    • the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after tidal expiration
    • ~1200ml
  46. residual volume (RV)
    • the amount of air that remains in the lungs at all times (even after forced expiration). It prevents the lungs from collapsing.
    • keeps lungs inflated
    • ~1200ml
    • non-exchangable air
  47. vital capacity (VC)
    • total amount of exchangable air
    • VC = TV + IRV + ERV
  48. total lung capacity (TLC)
    • the sum of all lung volumes
    • TLC = VC + RV
  49. external respiration
    gas exchange in the alveoli of lungs
  50. internal respiration
    • gas exchange at capillary beds
    • between blood and all body tissues
  51. pulmonary ventilation - how do we get the air into and out of the lungs?
    • has to do with volume / pressure changes of thoracic cavity
    • as volume increases then pressure decreases
Card Set:
2012-04-24 18:32:10
respiratory system

3rd exam respiratory system and digestive system
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