abBio quiz

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
146560
Filename:
abBio quiz
Updated:
2012-04-09 12:27:26
Tags:
bio lab
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Description:
bio lab quiz
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  1. Artificial Selection:
    Change in genetic structure of populations due to selective breeding by humans.

    • Limited by the genes available
    • Example:
    • Animals
    • Plants
  2. Biotechnology:
    using lving organisms or other biological systems to manufacture products.

    • Use genetic engineering
    • Examples:
    • Crops
    • Pharmaceuticals
    • Animals
  3. Recombinant DNA Technology:
    Techniques used to alter the genetic material of an organism by adding new DNA fragments or altering existing DNA
  4. Genetic Engineering:
    • Using recombinant DNA tecchnology to insert DNA from one organims to another resulting in a:
    • transgenic organism
  5. Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering:
  6. Stages of genetic engineering:
    • 1.) Find the gene of interest.
    • 2.) Isolate the gene of interest
    • 3.) Produce recombinant plasmid
    • 4.) Get bacteria to take up plasmid
    • 5.) Screen for clone of interest
  7. Step 1. Find the gene of interest:
    • Know the sequeince of the gene
    • or
    • Know the lenght between restriction sites that surround the gene of interest

    Restriction site: a particular base sequence found on DNA
  8. Restriction site:
    a particular base sequence found on DNA
  9. Step 2: Isolate the gene of interest
    Cut DNA with a restriction endonuclease

    Restriction endonuclease: an enzyme that cleaves DNA at a restriction site, usually within or near palindrome sequence.

    • Two ways:
    • 1.) know sequence - use probe that has a radioactive or fluorescnet tag.
    • 2.) know length -use gel electophoresis
  10. Restriction endonuclease:
    an enzyme that cleaves DNA at a restriction site, usually within or near a palindrome sequence.
  11. 3.) Produce a recombinant plasmid
    Vector: carriers recombinant DNA into a host cell

    Plasmid: a small fragment of extrachromosal DNA, usually circular, that replicates independently of the main chromosome.

    • 1.) Origin of replication site
    • 2.) Marger gene (antibiotic resistant)
    • 3.) Promoter / Terminator regions

    • -Cut plasmid w the same restriciton endonuclease
    • -Ligate to create recombinant plasmid
  12. Step 4: Get bacteria to take up plasmid
    • Transformation:
    • The uptake of DNA directly from the environment into bacterial cell.
    • 1.) increase membrane permeability
    • 2.) mix bacteria w the vector
    • 3.) further increase permeabilty w heat and salt
    • 4.) allow bacteria to replicate
  13. Why E. Coli?
    • Rapid growth and reproduction
    • small organism
    • simple genome
    • asexual reproduction
    • circular DNA
  14. Increase membrane permeability: Incubate w/ CaCl2
    • -bacteria membrane and plasmid both negatively charged.
    • -CaCL2 cover bacteria membrane with Ca++ and negatively charged plasimd is attracted to the cell
    • -Heat shock (produces pores)

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