BIOL 1202

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BIOL 1202
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2012-04-09 16:34:33
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biology 1202 pollock test
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test 2 Pollock BIOL 1202 LSU
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  1. boundaries between units in the __________ _____ ______ are marked by dramatic biotic change
    geologic time scale
  2. 5 kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s
    • monera
    • protista
    • plantae
    • fungi
    • animalia
  3. Woese's 3 domains (3 domain system)
    • bacteria - monera kingdom is part of this domain
    • archaea - monera kingdom is part of this domain
    • eukarya - protista, plantae, fungi, and animalia are part of this domain
  4. multiple kingdom system
    • bacterial kingdoms
    • archaean kingdoms
    • protistan kingdoms
    • plantae
    • fungi
    • animalia
  5. Did King Philip Come Over For Gumbo Sunday?
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  6. taxon (taxa)
    named taxonomic unit(s) at any level in the taxonomic hierarchy
  7. taxonomy
    naming and classifying organisms
  8. systematics
    naming and classifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationships
  9. phylogenetics
    reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among organisms
  10. phylogenetic tree
    hypothesized genealogy traced back to the last common ancestor through hierarchial, dichotomous branching
  11. cladistics
    the principles that guide the production of phylogenetic trees, a.k.a. cladograms
  12. node
    branch point, speciation event
  13. lineage or clade
    an entire branch
  14. clade is a ______________ group, i.e., an ancestral species and all of its descendents
    monophyletic
  15. a ___________ group consists of an ancestor and some of its descendents
    paraphyletic
  16. similar _________ (e.g., morphological, behavioral, molecular, etc. traits or features) suggest relatedness
    characters
  17. _________ __________ can produce superficially similar traits that lack homology with one another
    convergent evolution
  18. _____________ __________ share common ancestry
    homologous characters
  19. lack of similarity among taxa results from _________
    divergence
  20. ___________ _____________ do not share common ancestry
    analogous characters
  21. similarity among taxa results from ________
    convergence
  22. as a general rule, the more homologous characters shared by two species, _____________________________
    the more closely they are related
  23. each nucleotide can be treated as a __________
    character
  24. ingroup
    the group whose relationships we are trying to resolve
  25. outgroup
    a species (or group) known to have an older most recent common ancestor with the ingroup than the ingroup's most recent common ancestor
  26. an outgroup helps identify what?
    shared ancestral and shared derived characters
  27. the most ___________ tree is the one that requires the fewest evolutionary events (appearance of shared derived characters)
    parsimonious
  28. overall trend is increasing ______, with periodic episodes of __________
    • diversity
    • extinction
  29. _______________ ________ is responsible for many biogeographic distribution patterns
    continental drift
  30. continental drift results from ______ __________
    plate tectonics
  31. microbes
    too small to be seen clearly without a microscope
  32. prokaryotes size range
    .2-1 micrometer in diameter
  33. unicellular eukaryotes size range
    10-100 micrometers
  34. biological entities which are even smaller than bacteria
    • viruses
    • viroids
    • prions
  35. viruses, viroids, and prions are NOT _____________ because they don't have of the characteristics of living things
    organisms
  36. virus size range and shape
    • .05-.2 micrometer
    • come in many different shapes
  37. virus particles all have two parts
    • genome
    • capsid
    • sometimes an envelope
  38. genome
    • genetic information
    • cna be either single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA
  39. capsid
    protein coat which surrounds and protects genome
  40. envelope
    membrane (phospholipid bilayer) which surrounds the capsid
  41. function of a virus
    • take control of a host cell to produce more virus particles, a biological hijacking
    • genetic material of the virus "reprograms" the host cell to make more viruses
  42. because viruses require a host for their reproduction, they are not _______
    alive
  43. the cell type that a virus will infect is usually very ______ and the host species which the virus can infect are often a _______ range
    • specific
    • narrow
  44. compare/contrast viruses and viroids
    viroids are even simpler/smaller biological entities than viruses
  45. ________ are small fragments of single-stranded RNA (either linear or circular) with no protein coat
    viroids
  46. like a virus, a viroid takes over the cell it infects. viroids are ________ _________ which can infect citrus, potatoes, and other crop species
    plant pathogens
  47. prions
    unusual infectious particles
  48. ________ are protein particles with NO GENETIC MATERIAL
    prions
  49. ________ is an improperly folded version of a natural protein
    prions
  50. Deinococcus radiodurans
    • survive 3000x more radiation than humans
    • tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold
    • used to "chew up" toxic waste
    • exxon-valdez oil spil
    • "super bacterium"
  51. two prokaryotic domains
    • bacteria
    • archaea
  52. cell wall of prokaryotes
    • semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached)
    • gives bacteria the different types of characteristic shapes
  53. shapes of prokaryotes
    • bacilli
    • cocci
    • spirilla
  54. bacilli
    rod shaped
  55. cocci
    spherical
  56. spirilla
    helical or corkscrew shaped
  57. capsule
    • surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria
    • highly organized, firmly attached to the cell wall
    • composed of polysaccharides and/or proteins
    • function to attach the bacteria to a surface and act as a protective layer for the bacteria
  58. slime layer
    • surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria
    • less organized, loosely attached to the cell wall
    • composed of polysaccharides and/or proteins
    • function to attach the bacteria to a surface and act as a protective layer for the bacteria
  59. pili
    hairlike structures on surface of bacteria which aid in attachment
  60. about half the bacterial species are capable of motion using a _______ _________
    rotating flagella
  61. flagella
    • filaments which extend from the membrane of a cell and are used for cellular locomotion
    • prokaryotic flagella are stucturally different from eukaryotic flagella
  62. endospore
    • protective "resting" structures
    • bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall
    • resistant to extreme conditions, like dehydration, extreme heat or cold, and most poisons
    • will persist until conditions are favorable and then develop into a bacteria
  63. bacterial reproduction
    • asexual in the form of binary fission
    • sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmids
  64. asexual reproduction of bacteria in the form of binary fission
    the entire bacterial chromosome is replicated and passed on to each daughter cell
  65. sexual reproduction of bacteria in the form of conjugation using plasmids
    transfer genetic information between two bacteria via a special sex pilus
  66. plasmid
    small double-stranded ring of DNA that carries extrachromosomal genes in some bacteria
  67. energy sources of prokaryotes
    • autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
    • heterotrophs including symbiotes
  68. chemosynthesis
    derive energy from inorganic chemicals
  69. heterotrophic bacteria must have an _________ _______ source for their energy
    organic food
  70. most bacteria are _________ (or even __________) to humans, some are ____________
    • harmless
    • beneficial
    • pathogenic
  71. antibiotic resistance
    • because of the widespread use (and misuse) of antibiotics, some pathogenic bacteria have developed this
    • 70% of bacterial infections contracted in hospitals are resistant to at least 1 antibiotic
  72. compare and contrast bacteria and archaea
    • similar: single-celled, prokaryotes, small size
    • different: cell membrane lipids, cell wall composition, rRNA subunit sequences
  73. kingdom representing unusual mix of organisms
    protists
  74. all protists are ____________
    most are __________
    • eukaryotic
    • unicellular
  75. protists can be organized into 3 groups
    • fungus-like protists
    • plant-like protists (phytoplankton and algae)
    • animal-like protists (protozoans)
  76. fungus-like protists
    • unicellular decomposers
    • 1. water molds
    • 2. slime molds
  77. water molds
    • division oomycota
    • characterized by filamentous bodies nad mobile flagellated gametes
  78. slime molds
    • mobile feeding stage
    • stationary reproductive stage with fruiting bodies that produce spores
    • 1. acellular slime molds
    • 2. cellular slime molds
  79. acellular slime molds
    • division myxomycota
    • multi-nucleated acellular organisms
    • acellular because mobile stage goes through mitosis, but not cytokinesis
  80. cellular slime molds
    • single celled feeding stage
    • aggregate (clump up) for reproduction during environmental stress
    • aggregate is still mobile and migrates to a suitable spot for the formation of the fruiting body
  81. plant-like protists
    • phytoplankton and algae
    • represent base of most aquatic food webs (lots of photosynthesis and O2 production)
  82. phytoplankton can be divided into three divisions
    • dinoflagellates
    • diatoms
    • euglenoids
  83. dinoflagellates
    • division pyrrophyta
    • most are marine
    • 2 flagella
  84. diatoms
    • division chrysophyta
    • freshwater or marine
    • glasslike "shells" with holes to allow for exchange of substances
  85. euglenoids
    • division euglenophyta
    • most are freshwater
    • have 1-3 flagella
    • mostly photosynthetic
    • lack a rigid cell wall
    • have a photoreceptor called an eyespot
  86. simple plants (algae)
    some species of plant-like protists have been moved recently from kigdom plantae to protista
  87. three divisions make up the algae
    • red algae
    • brown algae
    • green algae
  88. red algae
    • division rhodophyta
    • mostly marine but some fresh water
    • live in deep water
    • red color caused by accesory pigments
    • cell wall has added polysaccharides
    • held upright by calcium carbonate
    • supports the deep water food web
    • used in cosmetics, ice cream, paint, sushi
  89. brown algae
    • marine
    • deep water to tidal
    • "brown" color caused by accesory pigments
    • cell wall has added polysaccharides
    • giant kelp forest
    • gas-bladders to keep the plant extending toward the surface
  90. green algae
    • division chlorophyta
    • marine and freshwater
    • besides multicellular, there are unicellular and colony forms
    • probable ancestor of land plants
    • cell wall only contains cellulose
  91. animal-like protists (protozoans)
    heterotrophs which actively seek and ingest food
  92. protozoans include three phyla
    • zooflagellates/sarcodines
    • sporozoans
    • ciliates
  93. zooflagellates/sarcodines
    • phylum zoomastigophora
    • zooflagellates
    • sarcodines - amoebae
  94. zooflagellates
    • one flagellum
    • free living and symbiotic species
    • some parasitic
  95. sarcodines - amoebae
    • no visible special structures for movement
    • instead move and engulf food using pseodopodia
    • foraminiferans
    • radiolarians and heliozoans
  96. foraminiferans
    • "forams"
    • make calcium carbonate shells
  97. radiolarians and heliozoans
    make glass-like silica shells
  98. sporozoans
    • phylum apicomplexa
    • all are parasites
    • Plasmodium which causes malaria
  99. ciliates
    • phylum ciliphora
    • mostly solitary freshwater
    • use cilia for movement and feeding
    • have an oral groove, an anal pore and two types of nuclei
  100. cilia
    • short hair-like filaments which are made of protein
    • may be a uniform covering of the organism or can be localized in patches
  101. fungal form
    • anatomy:
    • hyphae and mycelium
    • cell walls (contain chitin)
  102. hyphae
    thread-like filaments, one cell thick
  103. mycelium
    interwoven mass of hyphae
  104. fungi adults are mobile/immobile?
    immobile
  105. unlike plants and animals, no distinct ________ is formed during early development
    embryo
  106. fungal nutrition
    • chemoheterotrophic
    • saprobic
    • parasitic
    • mutualistically symbiotic
  107. cheoheterotrophic
    exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon
  108. saprobic
    digest dead organisms and waste products
  109. parasitic
    digest live organisms
  110. mutualistically symbiotic
    form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit
  111. three ploidy types of fungal life cycles
    • haploid
    • diploid
    • heterokaryon
  112. haploid
    • most fungal hyphae and all spores have haploid nuclei
    • may disperse long distances away from the fruiting body
  113. diploid
    diploid nuclei are found transiently during the sexual phase (if present)
  114. heterokaryon
    unfused nuclei from different parents occupying the same unit of hypha
  115. fungal reproduction
    • asexual
    • sexual
  116. asexual reproduction of fungi
    • default mode under stable conditions
    • spores are produced
  117. sexual reproduction of fungi
    • usually only under stressful conditions
    • spores are produced
    • many mating types possible (essentially like having many different sexes or genders)
  118. fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogany) initiates a ________ phase
    heterokaryotic
  119. fusion of nuclei (karyogamy) initiates a _________ phase
    zygotic
  120. meiosis in "zygote-like" cells produces spores or cells that will produce _________
    spores
  121. classification of fungi: 5 phyla
    • chytrids
    • zygomycetes
    • glomeromycetes
    • ascomycetes
    • basidiomycetes
    • deuteromycetes
  122. chytrids
    • ancient group - diverged earliest from the other fungi
    • aquatic - only fungi with flagellated spores (zoospores)
    • majority are saprobic
    • some are parasitic
  123. zygomycetes
    • zygote fungi
    • sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores
    • asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores
    • mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter
    • some parasites
  124. glomeromycetes
    • arbuscular mycorrhizae
    • associated with ~90% of plant species
  125. ascomycetes
    • sac fungi
    • sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)
    • asexual reproduction via naked spores (conidia)
    • many saprobic species
    • many parasites, especially of plants but also of animals
    • many symbionts with plants
    • sources of many interesting chemicals (Penicillium - source of penicillin, source of LSD, yeasts used to brew beer and bake breads and pizza crusts)
  126. basidiomycetes
    • club fungi
    • common mushrooms, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, plant-parasitic smuts and rusts
    • sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores
    • asexual reproduction is uncommon
  127. deuteromycetes
    • imperfect fungi
    • eclectic group of unclassified species
    • sexual structures unknown (no flagellated spores, zygosporangia, asci, or basidia) so these have not been classified
    • includes many molds and mildews (which demonstrates that certain commonly recognized "groups" are not good phylogenetic groups)
  128. influenza
    • highly contagious respiratory infection
    • virus usually enters the body through mucus membranes in the mouth, nose or eyes
  129. flu in the US (on average each year)
    • 5%-20% of the population gets the flu
    • more than 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu complications
    • about 36,000 people died from the flu
  130. flu worldwide
    • average of approxiamately 1 billion cases of the flu
    • 3-5 million cases of severe illness
    • 300,000-500,000 deaths annually
  131. causes of death from influenza
    • pneumonia and from exacerbations of cardiopulmonary conditions and other chronic diseases
    • deaths of older adults account for more than 90% of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza
  132. common symptoms of the flu
    • fever (usually high)
    • headache
    • muscle aches
    • chills
    • extreme tiredness
    • dry cough
    • runny nose may also occur but is more common in children than adults
    • stomach symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, may also occur but are more common in children than adults
  133. swine influenza
    • respiratory disease of pigs cause by type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs
    • people do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen
  134. bird flu
    • common referred to as avian flu
    • (AI)caused by influenza viruses that occur naturally among wild birdslow pathogenic AI is common to birds nad causes few problemshighly pathogenic H5N1 is deadly to domestic fowl, can be transmitted from birds to humans and is deadly to humansvirually no human immunity and human vaccine availability is very limited
  135. avian flu
    • (AI)
    • caused by influenza viruses that occur naturally among wild birds
    • low pathogenic AI is common to birds nad causes few problems
    • highly pathogenic H5N1 is deadly to domestic fowl, can be transmitted from birds to humans and is deadly to humans
    • virually no human immunity and human vaccine availability is very limited
  136. pandemic flu
    • virulent human flu that causes a global outbreak, or pandemic, of serious illness
    • because there is little natural immunity, the disease can spread easily from person to person
    • currently, there is no pandemic flu
  137. seasonal (or common) flu
    • respiratory illness that can be transmitted person to person
    • most people have some immunity, and a vaccine is available
  138. H1N1?
    H = ?
    hemagglutinin (HA)
  139. H1N1
    N = ?
    neuraminidase
  140. functions of influenza hemagglutinin (HA)
    • to identify target vertebrate cells by binding to host cells' receptors
    • allowing the entry of the viral genome into the target cells by causing the fusion of host membrane with the viral membrane
  141. HA is the _______ against which the host directs antibodies that can neutralize the virus
    protein
  142. how many HA subtypes are there
    16
  143. H1, H2, and H3 types are found in ______ influenza; they specialize in finding the particular sugars on cells of our respiratory tract
    human
  144. H5 attacks proteins in the digestive system of _____
    birds
  145. SERIOUS problems can occur when human influenza recombines with swine and/or avian influenza strains
    H?N?
    H1N1
  146. viral neuraminidase
    • enzyme that helps the virus to be released from a host cell
    • N1-N9
  147. what do neuraminidase inhibitors limit the severity and spread of?
    viral infections
  148. neuraminidase inhibitors are useful for combating influenza infection
    • zanamivir, administered by inhalation
    • oseltamivir, administered orally
    • permivir, under research, administered through intravenous or intramuscular injection
  149. past pandemics: (years)
    • 1918
    • 1957
    • 1968
  150. 1918 pandemic
    • Spanish flu
    • approximately 675,000 deaths from the flu occurred in the US alone
    • 35-100 million worldwide
    • 1/3 world infected, 28% of US
    • H1N1
  151. 1957
    • Asian flu
    • 69,800 people in the US died
    • H2N2
  152. 1968
    • Hong Kong flu
    • 33,800 deaths between September 1968 and March 1969
    • mildest pandemic in the 20th century
    • H3N2
  153. who is at risk for swine flu?
    • healthy adults between the ages of 20 and 40
    • explanation: an over-responsive immune system may release a "cytokine storm" or excessive amount of immune system proteins that trigger inflammation and harm the patient in the process
  154. three lines of defense against microbial attack
    • nonspecific external barriers
    • nonspecific internal barriers
    • specific immune response
  155. external barriers
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • first line of defense
  156. skin
    • physical barrier to microbial entry
    • inhospitable environment for microbial growth
    • dry, dead cells at surface
    • sweat and sebaceous glands secreting acids and natural antibiotics like lactic acids
  157. mucous membranes
    • of respiratory and digestive tracts are well-defended
    • secretions have antibacterial enzymes
    • mucous physically traps microbes entering through nose or mouth
    • membrane cilia sweep up mucous and microbes and they are coughed up or sneezed out of the body
  158. stomach
    if microbes are swallowed, acids and protein-digesting enzymes destroy them
  159. four types of nonspecific internal defense
    • phagocytic cells
    • natural killer cells
    • inflammatory response
    • fever
  160. phyagocytic cells
    • white blood cells in extracellular fluid
    • amoeboid cells that destroy invading microbes by engulfing them (phagocytosis)
  161. natural killer cells
    WBC that destroy body cells infected by viruses and cancerous cells by punching holes in them
  162. inflammatory response
    • caused by large-scale microbial invasion through a wound which has caused tissue damage
    • histamine released by damaged cells, increases blood flow to the wound ("washes" out wound)
    • wound becomes red, swollen, and warm (inflammation)
    • other chemicals attract macrophages (WBC) which engulf bacteria, dirt and tissue debris
    • blood clotting occurs, "walling off" the wounded area
    • as the white blood cells die, they collect as pus
    • any microbes that escape into the bloodstream are eaten by white blood cells
  163. fever
    • response to microbes establishing major infection
    • low-grade fevers (100-102*) are beneficial
    • severe fevers are dangerous
  164. fever does two things
    • slows down microbial reproduction
    • enhances immune system

    combined results are good effects on the body and bad effects on invading microbes
  165. immune response
    • reaction to specific type of microbe and provides future protection
    • involves two types of white blood cells (lymphocytes)
  166. two types of white blood cells (lymphocytes)
    • B cells (bone)
    • T cells (thymus)
  167. three step process of overall immune response
    • recognize invader
    • launch attack
    • remember invader
  168. step 1: recognize invader
    • antibodies
    • T-cell receptors on surface of T-cells
  169. antibodies
    • protein produced by a host to bind to and inactivate foreign particles
    • made by B cells
    • part of each is a specific binding site
    • only a complex molecule of the correct size and shape (called an antigen) can bind to the antibody
    • the binding of antigen to antibody triggers the immune response
    • each is capable of binding to a different antigenic molecule
    • genes for antibody parts recombine during development
    • recombination allows each immune cell to have a unique combination of antibody genes that it uses to make antibodies
    • there is a chance that some of the body's own cells will be recognized as antigens
  170. t-cell receptors
    • made by T cells
    • act like antibodies
    • when antigen binds to receptors, t-cell responds
  171. immune system can launch 2 types of attack
    • humoral immunity by B cells
    • cell-mediated immunity
  172. humoral immunity by B cells
    • mediated by free antibodies in the bloodstream
    • antigens in blood encounter B cells (each with specific surface antibody). B cells with appropriate antibody bind to antigen
    • binding triggers rapid cell division of two specific types of B cells
  173. B cell divides rapidly into two types
    • plasma cells release large amounts of antibodies into blood stream to fight infection
    • memory cells provide future immunity to the microbe, but do not release antibodies
  174. cell mediated immunity
    • killing target cells directly
    • destroys virus-infected or cancerous body cells
    • T cell receptors bind to antigen
    • T cells divide rapidly producing 2 types of cells
  175. T cell divides rapidly into two types
    • effector cells attack cells
    • memory T cells provide future immunity to infection
  176. three types of effector cells
    • helper T cells
    • killer T cells
    • suppressor T cells
  177. helper T cells
    • stimulate cell division in killer T cells and B cells
    • AIDS disrupts this process by destroying helper T cells
  178. killer T cells
    • cytotoxic cells
    • bind to antigens on the surface of "enemy" cells and release proteins that disrupt the plasma membrance of those "enemy" cells
    • natural killer cells are constantly moving through body and deal with the occasional infected or cancerous cell, while killer or cytotoxic T cells respond to widespread infection or cancer
  179. suppressor T cells
    appear after the "enemy" has been conquered to shut off the immune response in both B and killer T cells
  180. step 3: remembering the invader
    • plasma B cells and killer T cells immediately fight infection but live only a few days
    • memory B and T cells live for years
  181. memory B and T cells
    • if foreign cells with the same antigen re-enter bloodstream, memory cells recognize them and multiply rapidly to make huge populations of plasma B cells and killer T cells to evoke a second immune response
    • respond more rapidly than the B and T cells that originally made them. often there are no noticeable symptoms of the reinfection
  182. allergies
    • type of immune response
    • allergen recognized as a foreign antigen binds to B cells
    • B cell makes plasma cells releasing allergy antibodies into bloodstream
    • antibodies bind to histamine-containing cells in connective tissue
    • cells release histamine causing inflammatory response (increased mucous secretion, leaky capillaries, and other symptoms of inflammation)
  183. allergy medication
    • antihistamine drugs block some of the histamine effects
    • other drugs inhibit the production of histamine-producing cells
    • people without allergies either lack the genes for the allergy-causing antibodies or produce less of the antibody
  184. formation of a pimple
    • acne develops as a result of blockages in follicles
    • formation of a plug of keratin and sebum (made of fat and the debris of dead fat-producing cells)
    • naturally occuring bacteria Propionibacterium acnes can cause inflammation
    • white blood cells build up (forming a whitehead) then destroy (by phagocytosis) the bacteria to prevent infection
  185. HIV/AIDS - Human immunodeficiency virus / Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    • AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.1 million lives in 2007 of which an estimated 330,000 were children under 15 years
    • globally, an estimated 33.2 million people lived with HIV in 2007, including 2.5 million children
    • an estimated 2.5 million people were newly infected in 2007, including 420,000 children
  186. AIDS in the USA
    .7% of adult population currently living with HIV, roughly 1 out of every hundred people
  187. chicken pox and shingles
    • caused by same virus
    • symptoms are very different
  188. chicken pox
    • after you have had it, you become immune to the virus
    • it is possible that you may have a slight reaction after re-exposure, such as a few spots and a slight fever
    • however, you will not get a full-blown case of chicken pox more than once
  189. shingles
    • causative agent for herpes zoster is varicella zoster virus, a double-stranded DNA virus
    • most people are infected with this virus as children, and suffer from an episode of chickenpox
    • the immune system eventually eliniates the virus from most locations, but it remains dormant in the ganglia adjacent to the spinal cord or the ganglion semilunare in the base of the skull

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