a hostile or negative attitude towards a distinguishable group of people, based soley on their membership in that group.
What is a stereotype?
a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
What is discrimination?
unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group, simply because of his or her own membership in that group.
What is in group bias?
the tendency to evaluate an in group member more positively than an out group member
What is out group homogeneity?
the perception that thsoe in the out group are more similar or homogenous to each other than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in group are to each other. e.g. if you know something about one group member, it feels like you know something about all of them.
What is a meta stereotype?
a person's beliefs regarding the stereotype that out group members hold about their own group. e.g. white canadians belief that natives think white people are prejudiced.
What is the ultimate attribution error?
our tendency to make dispositional attributions about an entire group of people. e.g. if a man is successful on a task, attribute to ability, if a woman is successful on a task, attributed to hard work.
What is realistic conflict theory?
the theory that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination. e.g. if our in group misses out on a resource (jobs) because of competition with an out group.
What is mutual interdependence?
a situation in which two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other in order to accomplish a goal that is important to each group. e.g. both groups of boy scouts had to work together to pull the water truck up the hill thus eliminating competition between them.
What is modern prejudice?
outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes. e.g. withholding racist or sexist attitudes until it is "safe" to admit them
What is the stereotype threat?
the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype. e.g. participants reminded of their gender subliminally (female) results in more negative attitudes towards math and ultimately avoid math completely.
What is disidentification?
the process by which targets of negative stereotypes redefine their self concept such that the performance domain is no longer a part of their identity. e.g. if you convince yourself that you dont care or that it isnt important to perform well in something, it undermines motivation and affects actual performance.
What is the jigsaw classroom?
a classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice between children by placing them in small, desgregated groups and making each child dependent on the other to learn the material. e.g. you need to put together information that only one group member has to learn the whole picture.
What is the extended contact hypothesis?
the mere knowledge that a member of ones own group has a close relationship with a member of another group can reduce ones prejudice toward that group. e.g. prejudice can be reduced by creating cross group friendships.