CL LAB Urinalysis

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Author:
jenafer
ID:
146570
Filename:
CL LAB Urinalysis
Updated:
2012-04-10 12:13:20
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urine
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urine
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  1. The easiest way to obtain urine from a patient but the most contaminated way.
    Free catch urine
  2. What is the best way to ensure the most uncontaminated collection from free catch urine?
    • 1- wash the prepuce (male) or vulva (female) before collection
    • 2- and collect midstream urine
  3. Gentle manual expression of the bladder with steady pressure to help patient excrete urine
    bladder expression
  4. Sterile procedure of using a catheter to insert into the bladder through the urethra to obtain urine for culture and sensitivity tests
    Catherization
  5. Withdrawing urine by needle with guided help of a ultrasound to most guarantee a sterile collection of urine
    cystocentesis
  6. What 4 things to remember about Urine storage?
    • 1- Analyze within an hr of collection
    • 2- If you can not, Refrigerate and analyze within 6- 12 hrs
    • 3- Crystals will form in refrigerated samples
    • 4- Allow refrigerated samples to thaw before analyzing
  7. 6 things we look at in urine samples
    • 1- color
    • 2- clarity
    • 3- volume
    • 4- odor
    • 5- SG
    • 6- sediment
  8. what can odor tell us?

    a) strong odor
    b) ammonia odor
    c) sweet odor
    • 1- patient may be a male cat, goat, or pig
    • 2- patient may have cystitis
    • 3- patient may have DM, Ketosis, Pregnancy toxemia
  9. having a proteus or staphylococcus bacterial infection that gives off an odor of ammonia
    cystitis
  10. pH of an herbivore
    alkaline
  11. pH of a carnivore
    acidic
  12. methods of measuring pH
    • 1- pH meter
    • 2- pH strips
  13. methods of testing for proteins in urine
    • 1- reagent strips
    • 2- sulfosalicyclic acid turbity test
    • 3- Urine Protein: Creatinine ratio test
  14. condition associated with Glucosemia and Glucosuria
    DM
  15. methods of testing Glucose
    1- reagent strips
  16. name 3 ketones
    • 1- acetone
    • 2- acetoacidic acid
    • 3- B hydroxybutyric acid


  17. Normal urine

    Hemoglobinuria

    Myoglobinuria
  18. What color would it be?

    a) myoglobin conc urine
    b) drug or carotene conc urine
    c) hematuria or hemoglobinuria
    d) bile pigment
    e) high SG
    f) low SG
    • a) brown
    • b) orange
    • c) red-brown
    • d) green-brown
    • e) bright yellow
    • f) pale yellow
  19. methods of measuring SG
    • 1- reagent strips
    • 2- refractometer *
  20. What is SG?
    Specific gravity is the weight of a liquid compared to distilled water
  21. What is the renal threshold of glucose in dogs and cats?
    dogs: 180 mg/ dl

    cats: 220 mg/ dl
  22. Urine clarity: condition or species associated

    1- clear urine
    2- cloudy
    3- milky/turbid
    • 1- norm for most species
    • 2- presence of carbonate crystals and mucus
    • * norm for equines
    • 3- presence of carbonate crystals
    • *norm for rabbits
  23. methods of analyzing urine sediment
    1- microscopic exam
  24. methods of testing for Ketonuria and what it detects specifically?
    1- dipstick - acetoacidic acid and acetone only
  25. Bilirubinuria may be an indication of which conditions?
    • 1- bile flow obstruction
    • 2- hemolytic anemia
  26. methods of testing bile acids in urine
    • 1- dipstick for (conjugated only) bilirubinuria and urobilirubinuria
    • 2- icotest
  27. methods of blood testing in urine
    • 1- microscopic eval of sediment
    • 2- dipstick
  28. besides bleeding, what specifically does hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and ghost cells tell you
    • hematuria - bleeding in urinary tract hemoglobinuria- intravascular hemolysis
    • ghost cells- lysis of RBCs
  29. What can be said about Myoglobinuria?

    what can it be confused with?
    Myoglobinura is a protein found in muscle that if found in the urine can mean severe muscle damage

    It can be confused with hemoglobinuria
  30. methods of analyzing WBCs
    • 1- microscopic eval of sediment
    • *no reagent strips in cats
  31. which objective do we use to qauntify cells in urine sediment
    40 objective
  32. On a dipstick, bilirubinuria can be detected at ? mg/dl

    what can obscure results?
    0.2- 0.4 mg/dl

    color of urine can deter color, therefore our readings
  33. Exam of RBCs in urine:

    1- fresh round smooth edges
    2- crenated cells
    3- swelling cells
    4- ghost cells/ shadowed cells
    5- 2- 3 RBCs per high power field
    • 1- fresh round smooth edges- Normal
    • 2- crenated cells Conc urine
    • 3- swelling cells Dilute/ Alkaline urine
    • 4- ghost cells/ shadowed cells Lysis
    • 5- 2- 3 RBCs per high power field Normal
  34. Exam of WBCs in urine

    1- shrunken cells
    2- swelling cells
    3- having 0 WBCs per high power field
    4- having 2-3 WBCs per high power field
    5- having grayish/greenish WBCs
    • 1- shrunken cells Conc urine
    • 2- swelling cells Dilure urine
    • 3- having 0 WBCs per high power field Normal
    • 4- having 2-3 WBCs per high power field Pyuria (inflammation or infection)
    • 5- having grayish/greenish WBCs Normal
  35. pH of urine and RBCs

    a) 1.025

    b) 1.008

    c) 1.010-1.020
    a) 1.025 Conc urine = crenated RBCs

    • b) 1.008 Alkaline urine = Lysed RBCs
    • *ghost cells

    c) 1.010-1.020 Normal RBCs
  36. what kind of pad is this and what does it detect?

    the hemoprotein pad detects Heme or "peroxidase-like" activity
  37. WBCs in urine:

    a) what # is normal to find in urine?

    b) how much bigger than RBCs are they?

    c) Which WBC is found most in urine?
    • a) what # is normal to find in urine? <5/HPF
    • b) how much bigger than RBCs are they? 1.5-2.0

    c) Which WBC is found most in urine? neutrophils
  38. cylindrical structures that sleeve off distal tubules of the kidney that can indicate the speed at which filtrate is moving
    Urinary casts
  39. When it comes to urinary casts, why do we need to analyse the urine while its still fresh?
    • if acidic = secrete protein precipitates
    • if alkaline = dissolve *centrifuge with break down casts too
  40. Filtrate speed, casts, and damage:

    Faster filtrate = ? casts= ? damage
    Slower filtrate = ? casts= ? damage
    • Faster filtrate = hyaline casts= less tubule damage
    • Slower filtrate = granular casts= more tubule damage
  41. what condition is associated with:

    epithelial casts
    acute nephritis
  42. what condition is associated with:

    squamous epithelial cells
    • 1- contamination from genital tract or skin
    • 2- squamous metaplasia from prostate if high in numbers
  43. what condition is associated with:

    Hyaline casts
    • 1- renal issues
    • 2- fever
    • 3- too much exercise
  44. what condition is associated with:

    WBC casts
    renal tubule inflammation
  45. Where are they from:

    Transitional Epithelial Cells
    Mucosa of pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra
  46. what condition is associated with:

    Granular casts
    • *Granular casts are hyaline casts with granules
    • acute nephritis
  47. what condition is associated with:

    RBCs casts
    • 1- renal bleeding from trauma
    • 2- inflammation
    • 3- bleeding disorder
  48. what condition is associated with:

    Waxy casts
    • *Wider and smoother than hyaline casts
    • chronic tubular dz that is always of pathological significance
  49. what condition is associated with:

    Struvite crystals
    infection of ammonia producing organisms
  50. what condition is associated with:

    Biurate (Ammoniam urate) Crystals
    portocaval shunts found in dalmatians
  51. what condition is associated with:

    Fatty casts
    • 1- degenerative tubular dz such as DM
    • *are refractile lipid droplets found commonly in cat urine.
  52. what species are associated with:

    Calcium carbonate crystals
    • horses
    • rabbits
    • guinea pigs
    • goats
  53. what condition is associated with:

    Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals
    • 1- oxalate urolithiasis
    • 2- ethylene glycol toxicosis produces alot*
    • *normal in horses and cattle
  54. 9 crystals found in urine:
    • Amorphous crystals
    • Calcium carbonate
    • Calcium oxalate dihydrate
    • Cystine crystals
    • Leucine crystals
    • Struvite crystals
    • Sulfonamide crystals
    • Tyrosine crystals
    • Uric acid crystals
  55. what condition is associated with:

    Amorphous crystals
    urates: acidic urine
  56. what condition is associated with:

    Sulfonamides (crystals)
    • from sulfa drugs
    • and not usually found tin alkaline urine
  57. what condition is associated with:

    Uric Acid Crystals
    • ?
    • *found in dalmatians
  58. what condition is associated with:

    Cystine Crystals
    renal tubular dysfunction
  59. how do you see bacteria on a urine slide?


    and what other presence might accompany bacteria?
    gram stain


    WBCs
  60. what condition is associated with:

    Leucine Crystals
    liver dz
  61. what condition is associated with:

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate
    ethylene glycol intoxication (anti-freeze)
  62. what condition is associated with:


    Yeasts
    long term antibiotic use and immunosuppressive therapy
  63. what condition is associated with:


    Tyrosine
    liver dz
  64. what condition is associated with:

    Fungi
    1- Systemic infection especially in the renal pelvis such as Aspergillus

    *
    Its not uncommon to find fungal hypha in old samples due to contamination.
  65. what condition is associated with:

    Microfilaria of Dirofilaria immitis
    1- Hematuria due to heartworm dz
  66. what condition is associated with:

    Capillaria plica findings

    What species is it found in?
    presence of helminth parasite in a canine urinary bladder

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