Animal Senses

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Animal Senses
2012-04-09 15:13:54
Bio 244 lab

Unit 22
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  1. chemoreceptors
    respond to changes in the chemical concentrations of body fluids, ingested materials, and the outside medium
  2. pain receptors (nociceptors)
    respond to tissue damage
  3. thermoreceptors
    respond to changes in the external and internal temperatures
  4. photoreceptors
    respond to the presence of and changes in electromagnetic radiation, particularly visible light
  5. mechanoreceptors
    respond to changes in touch and pressure
  6. sensation (perception)
    occurs when the brain receives information from sensory cells and interprets them
  7. projection
    the brain projects the sensation back to the apparent source
  8. basic conduction of nerve impulses
    some cells of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) integrate the information sent from sensory cells in the sense organs, and send signals to the cells that elicit some response to the stimulus (the effector organs, muscles and glands)
  9. reflex
    an unconscious response to a stimulus, usually involving no more than a few neurons
  10. relex arc
    • simplest response
    • can remove the body part from danger much more rapidly
  11. reflex arc steps
    a sensory cell, after detecting a stimulus, sends a signal to an internueron in the spinal cord, which sends a signal to the motor neuron, which stimulates the effector organ
  12. interneurons
    • make the command decisions for the motor neuron in a reflex arc
    • faster than the brain sending a motor signal back down the spinal cord
  13. rods
    • sensitive to black and white vision
    • detect the presence of fewer photons (light)
    • predominate peripheral portions of the eye
  14. cones
    • see different colors
    • predominate the fovea
    • color blind people may be missing or have insufficient numbers of types of cone cells
    • three populations - sensitive to blue light, green light, and red light
  15. The most common color-blindness is due to...
    ... a deficiency of red and green cones.
  16. One possible hypothesis that can be testes is that a person who is right-handed is right-eye dominant, and a person who is left-handed is left-hand dominant. The data can be analyzed by using a special kind of chi-square analysis...
    ... a R x C contigency test.
  17. near point
    • the shortest distance that an object is in sharp focus
    • the closer the distance, the greater the ability of your eyes to focus on objects at various distances
    • this distance inscreases with age
  18. In order to discriminate two points pressing in on our skin...
    ... we have to have two different receptors sending two different signals, which the brain interprets as two points.
  19. sensory adaptation
    the initial pressure sensation with eventually disappear
  20. referred pain
    a phenomenon in which the experience of a mild discomfort on one body part, the pain appears to be located elsewhere
  21. olfaction
    • the sense of smelling
    • where molecules of the substance you are detecting interact with olfactory receptor cells
  22. olfactory receptor cells
    neurons that have sensory hairs, which are long cilia that protrude out of the cell and into a layer of mucus
  23. The perception of chemicals is created by...
    ... smell and taste (olfaction and gustation, respectively) working together.
  24. taste buds
    • barrel-shaped structures in stratified squamous epithelium, located primarily on the sides of the various papillae of your tongue
    • respond to chemicals that have been dissolved in saliva