Ch10_Medical_Terminology_PART1_Nervous_System_Word_Parts_&_Specialists

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Ch10_Medical_Terminology_PART1_Nervous_System_Word_Parts_&_Specialists
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2012-04-16 14:48:57
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Medical Terminology Health Professional 6E Nervous System Word Parts
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Ch10 Medical Terminology - PART 1 - Nervous System - Word Parts & Specialists
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  1. Cerebr/o or encephal/o
    Combining form(s) meaning brain

    Function: Coordinates all body activities by receiving & retransmitting message throughout the body
  2. Myel/o
    Combining form meaning spinal cord

    • Function: Transmits nerve impulse between the:
    • 1. Brain
    • 2. Arms & Legs
    • 3. Lower part of the boy
  3. Neur/o and Neur/i
    Combining form meaning nerve(s)


    Function: Receive & transmit messages to & from all parts of the body
  4. encephal/o
    Combining form meaning brain
  5. -ia
    Suffix meaning abnormal condition
  6. par-
    Prefix meaning abnormal

    Example: parethesia
  7. -al
    Suffix meaning pertaining to
  8. -ic
    Prefix meaning pertaining to
  9. intra-
    Prefix meaning within
  10. an-
    Prefix meaning without
  11. in-
    Prefix meaning without
  12. dys-
    Prefix meaning bad, difficult, or painful
  13. anti-
    Prefix meaning against
  14. hyper-
    Suffix meaning excessive
  15. ultra-
    Suffix meaning beyond
  16. -us
    Suffix - Singular noun ending
  17. -ion
    Suffix meaning condition or state of

    Example: concussion
  18. -ism
    Suffix meaning condition of
  19. esthesi/o
    Combining form meaning feeling
  20. -esthesia
    Suffix meaning sensation, feeling
  21. electr/o
    Combining form meaning electric
  22. -ologist
    Suffix meaning specialist
  23. esthet/o
    Combining form meaning feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception

    Example: Anesthetist
  24. psych/o
    Combining form meaning mind
  25. thym/o
    Combining form meaning mind; thymus gland; soul
  26. anxi/o
    Combining form meaning anxiety
  27. -thymia
    Suffix meaning mind
  28. somn/o; somn/i
    Combining form meaning sleep
  29. narc/o
    Combining form meaning stupor, numbness
  30. ambul/o
    Combining form meaning to walk
  31. -iatrist
    Suffix meaning specialist
  32. -lytic
    Suffix meaning to destroy
  33. -ist
    Suffix meaning specialist
  34. -graphy
    Suffix meaning process of recording or producing a picture of
  35. -otomy
    Suffix meaning surgical incision
  36. -plasty
    Suffix meaning surgical repair
  37. -rrhaphy
    Suffix meaning surgical suturing
  38. -tropic
    Suffix meaning having an affinity for
  39. cephal/o
    Combining form meaning head

    Note: encephal/o is the combining form for brain
  40. myel/o
    Combining form meaning spinal cord (or bone marrow)
  41. radicul/o
    Combining form mening root or nerve root
  42. caus/o; caust/o
    Combining form meaning burn or burning
  43. arachn/o
    Combining form meaning spider
  44. acr/o
    Combining form meaning top

    Note: Think about the acropolis
  45. claustr/o
    Combining form meaning barrier
  46. agor/a
    Combining form meaning marketplace
  47. klept/o
    Combining form meaning to steal
  48. pyr/o; pyret/o
    Combining form meaning fire (or fever)
  49. trichotill/o
    Combining form meaning related to hair
  50. poli/o
    combining form meaning gray matter of the brain & spinal cord
  51. -mania
    Suffix meaning madness
  52. -phobia
    Suffix meaning abnormal fear
  53. -algia
    Suffix meaning pain
  54. -pathy
    Suffix meaning disease
  55. -osis
    Suffix meaning abnormal condition
  56. -lepsy
    Suffix meaning seizure
  57. -ceps
    Suffix meaning head
  58. -cele
    Suffix meaning hernia
  59. mening/o; meningi/o
    Combining form meaning meninges
  60. hydr/o
    Combining form meaning water
  61. -itis
    Suffix meaning inflammation
  62. -oma
    Suffix meaning tumor
  63. -concuss/o
    Combining form meaning shaken together, violently agitated
  64. contus/o
    Combining form meaning bruise
  65. hemat/o; hem/o
    Combining form meaning blood
  66. crani/o
    Combining form meaning skull, cranium
  67. son/o
    Combining form meaning sound
  68. ech/o
    Combining form meaning sound

    Note:
    Son/o is also a combining form meaning sound
  69. Sensory Organs & Receptors
    • Function:
    • 1. Receive external stimulation
    • 2. Transmit stimulli to sensory neurons

    • Sturctures:
    • 1. Eyes (sight)
    • 2. Ears (hearing)
    • 3. Nose (smell)
    • 4. Skin (touch)
    • 5. Tongue (taste)
  70. Major Structures, Functions & Divisions of Nervous System
    • Structures:
    • 1. Nerves
    • 2. Brain
    • 3. Spinal cord
    • 4. Sensory organs
    • .....a. Eyes (sight)
    • .....b. Ears (hearing)
    • .....c. Nose (smell)
    • .....d. Skin (touch)
    • .....e. Tongue (taste)

    • Functions:
    • 1. Coordinates & controls all bodily activities
    • 2. The brain is its center; when the brain quits functioning, the body dies

    • Divisions (for descriptive purposes only):
    • 1. Central nervous system (CNS)
    • 2. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  71. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Structures:
    • 1. Brain
    • 2. Spinal cord

    • Functions:
    • 1. Receive & process information
    • 2. Regulate all bodily activities
  72. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • Structures:
    • 1. Cranial nerves - 12 pairs
    • 2. Spinal nerves - 31 pairs

    • Function:
    • Transmit nerve signals to & from CNS
  73. Nerve
    • 1. One or more bundles of neurons
    • 2. Connect brain & spinal cord to other parts of body
  74. Tract
    • Structure & Function:
    • 1. Bundle or group of nerve fibers
    • 2. Located within brain or spinal cord.

    • Two Types:
    • 1. Ascending nerve tracts
    • 2. Descending nerve tracts
  75. Ascending nerve tracts
    Carry nerve impulses UP toward the brain
  76. Descending nerve tracts
    Carry nerves impulses DOWN away from the brain
  77. Ganglion
    • 1. Nerve center
    • 2. Made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies
    • 3. Outside the CNS

    Note: Term also describes a benign, tumor-like cyst
  78. Innervation
    Supply of nerves to a specific body part
  79. Plexus (plural: plexuses)
    Network of intersecting spinal nerves

    Note: This term also describes a network of intersecting blood or lymphatic vessels
  80. Receptors
    1. Sites on sensory organs that receive external stimulation

    2. Send stimulus thru sensory neurons to brain for interpretation.
  81. Stimulus
    • Anything that:
    • 1. Excites (activates) a nerve which
    • 2. Causes an impulse
  82. Impulse
    Wave of excitation transmitted thru nerve fibers & neurons
  83. Reflex
    1. Automatic, involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body

    • 2. Examples:
    • .....a. Changes in blood pressure, heart or breathing rates
    • .....b. Coughing & sneezing
    • .....c. Responses to painful stimuli
  84. Neurons
    • 1. Function:
    • .....a. Basic cells of the nervous system
    • .....b. Allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other.
    • .....c. Carry impulses thru electrochemical process
    • .....d. Process creates brain waves - patterns of electrical activity

    • 2. Structure:
    • .....a. One cell body
    • .....b. Several dendrites
    • .....c. One axon
    • .....d. Terminal end fibers

    3. Body has billions of neurons
  85. There are 3 types of neurons (ACE & SAM)
    1. Types are described according to their function

    • 2. The 3 types of neurons are:
    • .....a. Afferent (Sensory) - toward
    • .....b. Connecting (Associative) - linking
    • .....c. Efferent (Motor) - away from
  86. Afferent neurons
    • 1. Means toward
    • 2. Sensory neurons
    • 3. From sensory organs & skin
    • 4. Carry impulses toward the brain & spinal cord
  87. Connecting neurons
    • 1. Meaning linking/connecting
    • 2. Associative neurons
    • 3. Link sensory & motor neurons
  88. Efferent neurons
    • 1. Means away from
    • 2. Motor neurons
    • 3. Carry impulses away from the brain & spinal cord toward muscles & glands
  89. Brain waves
    1. Patterns of neuron electrical activity

    Note: Different types of brain waves are produced during periods of intense activity, rest, & sleep
  90. ACE is SAM
    ACE = Afferent - Connecting - Efferent (euron types)

    SAM = Sensory - Associative - Motor (functions)
  91. Neuron Parts
    • 1. Cell body - 1
    • 2. Dendrites - several
    • 3. Axon - 1
    • 4. Terminal nerve fibers
  92. Dendrite
    • 1. Root-like processes on nerve cell
    • 2. Receive impulses
    • 3. Conduct impulses to cell body
    • 4. Several per cell body
  93. Processes
    Structure that extends out from nerve cell body
  94. Axon
    • 1. Process that extends away from cell body
    • 2. Conducts impulses away from nerve cell
    • 3. Can be more than 3 feet long
    • 4. Many (not all) protected by myelin sheath
  95. Myelin Sheath
    • 1. White fatty tissue
    • 2. Covers most - but not all - axons of nerve cells
  96. Terminal end fibers
    • 1. Branching nerve fibers at end of axon
    • 2. Lead nervous impulse from axon to synapse
  97. Synapse
    • 1. Space between:
    • .....a. 2 neurons
    • .....b. 1 neuron & a receptor organ

    2. Can be a few or hundreds of synapses per neuron
  98. Neurotransmitters
    • 1. Chemicals that make it possible for messages to cross from synapse to target receptor
    • 2. 200-300 known, each with specialized function
    • 3. Examples include A.N.D.E.S.:
    • .....a. Acetylcholine
    • .....b. Norepinephrine
    • .....c. Dopamine
    • .....d. Endorphins
    • .....e. Serotonin
  99. Acetylcholine
    • 1. Influences muscle action
    • 2. Released at some synapes:
    • .....a In spinal cord
    • .....b. At neuromuscular junctions
  100. Norepinephrine
    • 1. Responds to hypotension & physical stress
    • 2. Released at synaptic nerve endings
  101. Dopamine
    • 1. Involved in:
    • ......a. Mood & thought disorders
    • ......b. Abnormal movement sich as Parkinson's
  102. 2. Released within brain
  103. Endorphins
    1. Naturally occuring substances
  104. 2. Produced by brain to relieve pain
  105. Serotonin
    • 1. Roles in sleep, hunger, & pleasure recognition
    • 2. Sometimes linked to mood disorders
    • 3. Released in brain
  106. Glial Cells
    • 1. Provide support & protection for neurons
    • 2. 4 main functions:
    • ......a. Surround neurons & hold in place
    • ......b. Supply nutrients & oxygen to neurons
    • ......c. Insulate one neuron from another
    • ......d. Destroy & remove dead neurons
  107. Myelin Sheath
    • 1. Protective covering (white sheath) made up of glial cells
    • 2. Forms white matter of brain
    • 3. Covers some parts of spinal cord
    • 4. Covers axon of most peripheral nerves
    • 5. Myelinated means having a myelin sheath
    • 6. Unmyelinated nerve fibers are called gray matter
  108. Myelinated
    • 1. Having a myelin sheath
    • 2. White matter
  109. Unmyelinated
    • 1. Lacking a myelin sheath
    • 2. Gray matter - unmyelinated portion of nerve fibers
    • 3.Lack of myelin sheath creates gray color of brain & spinal cord
  110. Central Nervous system
    • 1. Made up of:
    • ......a. Brain
    • ......b. Spinal cord
    • 2. Protected externally by bones of:
    • ......a. Cranium
    • ......b. Vertebrae of spinal column
    • 3. Further protected within bony structures by:
    • ......a. Meninges
    • .....b. Cerebrospinal fluid
  111. Meninges (singular: meninx)
    • 1. System of membranes enclosing brain & spinal cord of the CNS
    • 2. Consists of 3 layers of connective tissue:
    • .....a. Dura mater
    • .....b. Arachnoid membrane
    • .....c. Pia mater
  112. Dura Mater
    • Thick, tough outermost membrane of the meninges
    • 2. Inner surface of cranium (skull) is lined with dura mater
  113. Dura
    Means hard
  114. Mater
    Means mother
  115. Epidural space
    • 1. Inner surface of the vertebral column
    • 2. This space is located between walls of the vertebral column & dura mater of the meninges
    • 3. Contains fat & supportive connective tissues to cushion the dura mater
  116. Subdural Space
    • 1. In both skull & vertebral column
    • 2. Located between the dura mater & the arachnoid membrane
  117. Arachnoid Membrane
    • 1. The second layer of the meninges
    • 2. Located between the dura mater & the pia mater
    • 3. Resembles a spider web.
    • 4. Is loosely attached to the other meninges to allow space for fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) to flow between the layers
  118. Arachnoid
    Means having to do with spiders
  119. Subarachnoid Space
    1. Located below the arachnoid membrane & above the pia mater

    2. Contains cerebrospinal fluid.
  120. Pia Mater
    • 1. Third layer of the meninges
    • 2. Located nearest the brain & spinal cord
    • 3. Consists of delicate connective tissue that contains a rich supply of blood vessels
  121. Cerebrospinal Fluid (spinal fluid)
    • 1. Produced by special capillaries within 4 ventricles in middle region of the cerebrum
    • 2. Fluid is clear, colorless, & watery fluid that flows throughout the brain & around the spinal cord
    • 3. Functions of this fluid:
    • .....a. Cool & cushion brain & spinl cord from shock or injury
    • .....b. Nourish brain & spinal cord by transporting nutrients and chemical messengers to them
  122. Parts of the Brain
    • 1. Functions most essential to life are located within ost protected parts of the brain.
    • 2. Parts of brain are:
    • .....a. Cerebrum
    • ...........(1.) Cerebral hemispheres (subsets of cerebrum)
    • ..................(a.) Left
    • ..................(b.) Right
    • ...........(2.) Cerebral lobes (subsets of hemispheres)
    • ..................(a.) Frontal
    • ..................(b.) Parietal
    • ..................(c.) Occipital
    • ..................(d.) Temporal
    • .....b. Thalamus
    • .....c. Hypothalamus
    • .....d. Cerebellum
    • .....e. Brainstem
    • ...........(1.) Midbrain
    • ...........(2.) Pons
    • ...........(3.) Medulla
  123. Cerebrum - Structures
    • 1. Largest & uppermost part of the brain
    • 2. Divided into two halves connected at lower midpoint by corpus callosum
    • 3. Cerebral cortex is outer layer of cerebrum
    • 4. Consists of 4 lobes:
    • .....a. Frontal
    • .....b. Parietal
    • .....c. Occipital
    • .....d. Temporal
  124. Cerebrum - Functions
    • 1. Controls highest level of thought including:
    • .....a. Judgment
    • .....b. Memory
    • .....c. Association
    • .....d. Emotion
    • .....e. Critical thinking
    • 2. Processes sensations
    • 3. Controls & integrates all voluntary muscle activity
    • 4.
  125. Cerebellum vs. Cerebrum - Location
    The cerebellum is below the cerebrum

    Memory Aid: BELow and cereBELlum
  126. Cerebral
    Means pertaining to the cerebrum or to the brain
  127. Cerbral Cortex
    • 1. Outer layer of cerebrum
    • 2. Made up of gray matter
    • 3. Arranged in deep folds known as fissures
  128. Fissure
    Normally occuring deep groove

    Note: Different from skin fissure which is crack-like sores
  129. Cerebral Hemisphere
    • 1. Hemispheres control the majority of functions on the opposite side of body
    • 2. Injury to one hemisphere produces sensory & motor deficits on opposite side of body
    • Note: The crossing of nerve fibers that makes this arrangement possible occurs in the brain stem.
    • f the body
  130. Cerebral Lobes
    1. Each cerebral hemisphere is subdivided to create pairs of cerebral lobes

    2. Lobes named for the bone of the cranium covering it.
  131. Frontal Lobe
    • Controls:
    • 1. Skilled motor functions
    • 2. Memory
    • 3. Behavior
  132. Parietal Lobe
    • Receives & interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in:
    • 1. Tongue
    • 2. Skin
    • 3. Muscles
  133. Occipital Lobe
    Controls eyesight
  134. Temporal Lobe
    • Controls:
    • 1. Senses of:
    • .....a. Hearing
    • .....b. Smell
    • 2. Ability to create, store, & access new information
  135. Thalamus
    1. Location: Below cerebrum

    2. Function: Produces sensations by relaying impulses to & from cerebrum & sense organs
  136. Hypothalmus
    1. Location: Below thalamus

    • 2. Functions: Seven major regulatory functions:
    • .....a. Autonomic nervous system
    • .....b. Emotional responses
    • .....c. Body temperature regulation
    • .....d. Food intake regulation (control hunger sensations)
    • .....e. Water balance regulation (control thirst sensations)
    • .....f. Sleep-wakefulness cycle regulation
    • .....g. Pituitary gland & endocrine system regulation
  137. Cerebellum
    1. Structure: Second largest part of the brain

    2. Location: Back of head below the posterior portion of the cerebrum

    • 3. Functions:
    • .....a. General functions are to:
    • ...........(1.) Produce smooth,coordinated movements
    • ...........(2.) Maintain equilibrium
    • ...........(3.) Maintain normal posture
    • .....b. Receives incoming messages regarding:
    • ...........(1.) Movement within joints
    • ...........(2.) Muscle tone
    • ...........(3.) Positions of the body
    • .....c. Relays messages to different parts of brain that controls the motions of the skeletal muscles
  138. Brainstem - Structure
    • 1. Stalk-like
    • 2. Connection between:
    • ......a. Cerebral hemispheres
    • ......b. Spinal cord
    • 3. Made up of 3 parts:
    • .....a. Midbrain
    • .....b. Pons
    • .....c. Medulla
  139. Midbrain & Pons
    1. Provide conduction pathways to & from higher & lower centers of brain

    2. Control reflexes for movements of eyes & head in response to visual & auditory stimuli
  140. Pons
    Latin word meaning bridge
  141. Medulla
    • 1. Location:
    • .....a. Lowest part of brainstem
    • .....b. Connected to spinal cord

    • 2. Function:
    • Controls basic survival functions, including:
    • .....a. Muscles controlling:
    • ...........(1.) Respiration
    • ...........(2.) Heart rate
    • ...........(3.) Blood pressure
    • .....b. Reflexes for:
    • ...........(1.) Coughing
    • ...........(2.) Sneezing
    • ...........(3.) Swallowing
    • ...........(4.) Vomiting
  142. Spinal Cord - Structure
    • 1. Long, fragile tube-like
    • 2. Begins at the end of the brain stem
    • 3. Continues almost to bottom of the spinal column
    • 4. Surrounded & protected by:
    • .....a. Cerebrospinal fluid
    • .....b. Meninges
    • .....c. Spinal column
  143. Spinal Cord - Function
    • 1. Contains all nerves affecting:
    • .....a. Limbs
    • .....b. Lower part of body
    • 2. Pathway for impulses traveling to & from brain
  144. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • 1. Consists of:
    • ......a. 12 pairs of cranial nerves that extend from the brain
    • ......b. 31 pairs of spinal nerves extending from spinal cord

    • 2. Three types of specialized nerves transmit signals from CNS:
    • .....a. Autonomic nerve fibers
    • .....b. Sensory nerve fibers
    • .....c. Somatic (motor) nerve fibers
  145. Autonomic Nerve Fibers
    • Carry instructions:
    • ......a. To organs & glands
    • ......b. From autonomic nervous system
  146. Sensory Nerves Fibers
    • 1. Receive external stimuli (such as how something feels)
    • 2. Transmit this information to the brain for interpretation
  147. Somatic (Motor) Nerve Fibers
    Convey information that controls body's voluntary muscular movements
  148. Peripheral
    Means pertaining to body parts that are away from the center of the body
  149. Cranial Nerves
    1. 12 pairs that originate from undersurface of the brain

    • 2. About each pair:
    • .....a. They are identical in function & structure
    • .....b. Each nerve of a pair serves half of the body

    • 3. Naming:
    • .....a. Identified by Roman numerals
    • .....b. Named for area or function they serve
  150. Peripheral Spinal Nerves
    1. 31 pairs grouped toegther

    • 2. Naming:
    • .....a. Based on region of the body they innervate
    • .....b. Then by number within a region:
    • ..........(1.) Cervical nerves: C1 - C8
    • ..........(2.) Thoracic nerves: T1-T12
    • ..........(3.) Lumbar nerves: L1-L5
    • ..........(4.) Sacral nerves: S1-S5

    • 3. Plexus:
    • .....a. Spinal nerves sometimes join with others to form a plexus to innervate a certain area
    • .....b. Example: The lumbar plexus (L1 - L4) - serves the lower back
  151. Autonomic Nervous System
    • 1. Organized into two divisions
    • .....a. Sympathetic nervous system
    • .....b. Parasympathetic nervous system

    2. Control involuntary actions of body such as functioning of internal organs

    3. In order to maintain homestatsis, each division balances the activity of the other
  152. Homeostasis
    Process of maintaining constant internal environment of the body
  153. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Prepares body for emergencies by increasing:
    • .....1. Breathing rate
    • .....2. Heart rate
    • .....3. Blood flow to muscles
  154. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    1. Returns body to normal after a response to stress.

    2. Maintains normal body functions during ordinary circumstances that are not emotionally or physically stressful
  155. Anesthesiologist
    Physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery
  156. Anesthetist
    Medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician.

    For example: a nurse anesthetist.
  157. Neurologist
    Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the nervous system.
  158. Neurosurgeon
    Physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
  159. Psychiatrist
    Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, & mental illness
  160. Psychologist
    1. Holds an advanced degree, but is not a medical doctor

    2. This specialist evaluates & treats emotional problems & mental illness

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