chapter 12.txt

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markfields
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146631
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chapter 12.txt
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2012-04-11 16:49:34
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12 psych
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terms for exam
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  1. recognition
    identifying previously learned information with the help of more external cues
  2. Recall
    Retrieving previously learned informatio without the aid of or with very few external cues
  3. Network theroy of memory organization
    Theory says that we store related ideas in separate categories, or files, called nodes
  4. Associations
    Linking of nodes or categories of ideas together by making associations or mental roads between new information and old information that was previously stored
  5. Network
    Thousands of interconnected nodes, which form an enormous cognitive network for arranging and storing files
  6. Network hierarchy: Nodes
    Memory files that contain related information organized arounf a specific topic or category

    Refers to the arrangement of nodes or memory files in a certain order or hierarchy

    Bottom of the hierarchy are nodes with very concrete information, which are connected to nodes with general or abstract information
  7. FORGETTING CURVES
    Unfamiliar and uninteresting
    • Unfamiliar and uninteresting
    • forgetting curve measures the amount of previously learned information that subjects can recall or recognize
  8. FORGETTING CURVES
    Familiar and interesting
    remembering is partly related to how familiar or interesting the information is
  9. REASONS FOR FORGETTING
    • Overview: forgetting
    • refers to the inability to retrieve, recall, or recognize information that was stored or is still stored in long-term memory
  10. Repression
    according to Freud, repression is a mental process that automatically hides emotionally threatening or anxiety-producing information in the unconscious, from which repressed memories cannot be recalled voluntarily, but something may cause them to enter consciousness at a later time
  11. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR FORGETTING/
    • - Poor retrieval cues/poor encoding
    • - Retrieval cues
    • - mental reminders that we create by forming vivid mental images or creating associations between new information and information we already know.
  12. Interference
    • - common reason for forgetting
    • - recall of some particular memory is blocked or prevented by other related memories
    • - may forget information not because it is no longer in storage or memory but rather because old or newer related information produces confusion and thus blocks retrieval from memory.
  13. Amnesia
    Maya be temporary or permanent, is loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the brain or after disease
  14. Distortion
    we misremember something due to memory distortions caused by bias or suggestibility
  15. Proactive interference
    Occurs when old information (learned earlier) locks or disrupts the remembering of related new information (learned later)
  16. Retroactive interference
    Occurs when new information (learned later) blocks or disrupts the retrieval of related old information (learned earlier)
  17. Retrieval cues
    Mental reminders that you create by forming vivid mental images of information that you already know
  18. Tip of the tongue phenomenon
    Refers to having a stong feeling that a particular word can be recalled, but despite making a great effort, we are temporarily unable to recall this particular information
  19. State-dependent learning
    - Easier to recall information when you are in the same physiological or emotional state or setting as when you originally encoded the information.
  20. Biological bases of Memory:
    What is the location of memories in the Brain
    Cortex
  21. short term memories
    - ability to hold words, facts, and even events in short-term memory depends on the activity in the cortex
  22. Long-term memory
    - the ability to remember or recall songs, words, facts, and events for days, months, or years. depends on areas widely spread throughout the cortex
  23. Location of memories in the Brain:
    the Amygdala: emotional memories
    located in the tip of the temporal lobe recieves input from all the senses and is associated with emotional memory
  24. –Hippocampus: transferring memories
    • •transfers
    • words, facts, and personal events from short-term memory into permanent
    • long-term memory
  25. •Making a short-term memory
    –Neural assemblies
    • groups
    • of interconnected neurons whose activation allows information or stimuli to be
    • recognized and held briefly and temporarily in short-term memory
  26. •Making a long-term memory
    –Long-term potentiation (LTP)
    • •refers
    • to change in the structure and function of neurons after they have been
    • repeatedly stimulated
  27. neuroscientists believe that the LTP process, which changes the structure and function of
    neurons, is the most likely basis for learning and memory in animals and humans
  28. •Improving your memory
    –Mnemonic methods
    • ways to improve encoding and create better retrieval cues by forming vivid associations or images, which
    • improve recall
  29. –Method of loci
    • •encoding technique that creates
    • visual associations between already memorized places and new items to be
    • memorized
  30. –Peg method
    • •encoding technique that creates
    • associations between number-word rhymes and items to be memorized

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