Plancks constant. Ties wavelength to energy per packet.
Work function
Hv= kinetic energy of electron+work to remove electron
Threshhold frequency
Minimum frequency (w/h) to remove electron from surface
Stationary mode
Energy level at which electron emit no energy
How is hv tied to changes in energy state?
hv=E2E1
Ionization energy
Energy needed to move an electron to infinity
Rydberg constant
Value used in deriving wavelength average from mjultiple spectral lines?
Crystals are distinguished from amorphous solids by
Representative unit of molecular structure repeated at fixed intervals.
Basis
Structural init of a crystal
Lattice
Unifor arangement of points in space repeatyed in cristal styructure.
Crystal lattice
3d lattice
Space lattice
2 d lattice
Primitive cell
Minimum volume of the 3d crystal
Molecular bonding
Held together by temporary van der waal forces
Ionic bonding
Held together by interaction of shared ions
Covalent boonding
Atoms with similair charges share electrons to comlete orbital
Hydrogen bonding
Partial charges bresponsible for bonds of this type.
Intermediate type bonding.
A large anions field of electrons is disturbed by a nearby ion
Metal bonding.
Sea of electron
Lattice energy (inc E_c)
The energy of a crystal lattice
Speed of light
Wavelength*freqiency
Energy
Planck*frequency=plank*speedoflight/wavelength
Momentum operator
H/i d/dx= ihd/dx
Hamiltonian operator
Energy*psi=Hamiltonian*psi
How do we determine if gtwo functions orthoganol?
Integral of a*b dtau =0
Energy of sublimation
Energu to go from solid to gas
Order of lattice strength
Van der waal hydrogenmetaliccovalent ionic
London vanderwaal bond energy
Sum of forces modelled by leonard jones method. Based on partial charges as function of (1?r)^12 (1/r) ^6
Bond energy of metal
Enthalpy of sublimation to mono atomic gas. Found as function of vapor pressure
Intermolecular
Between molecules
Ntramolecular
Inside the molecule
Melting point increases with
Bond strength
Bond energy of hbond or dipole dipole
Based on partial charges as function of (1/r) ^6
Bond energy of cobvalent solids
Enthalpy to convert into gas phase, can be calculated with density functional theory
Ionic solid crystal lattice energy
Calculated using hesss law
Hesss law steps (5)
1) calculate metals heat of sublimation
2) calculate metal gas ionization energy per chatge
3) if gas is diatomic, calculate dissociation energy
4) calculatge gass electron affi nity for charge number
5) sum and subtract solids enthalpy of formation
Ionic crystal internal bond energy
(Chargeanion)(charge cation)/r
Physiadsorption
Adsorption onto a surface caused by van der waals forces. Typically week and unimporgtant. Can however occur quickly and spontaneously
Chemiadsorption
Covalent adsorption onto a surface modelled by langmuir. Slow and rarely spontaneous due to high activation energy
When does surface become saturated in langmuir model?
High vapor pressure leads to 100% unilayer coverage
What is sign of enthalphy h of adsorption

What is sign of entropy s of adsorption

What is sign of gibbs for adsorption

Difference between graph of langmuir vs bet coverage.
Langmuir reaches a flat surface at 100% coverage by monolayer.
BET can have multiple layers so aftwr initial asymptote starts rising again
Langmuir hinschelwood.
Bimolecular reaction catalyzed by surfacwe. At some level (stoich ratio) rate peaks and then tapers off if conc of one increases while other stay constant
Langmuir hinschelwood if one or both sunstance sorb weak
Then that substance will drop out of bottom of eqjatipon
Langmuir rideal
Competitive adsorption, but b need bond surface and a must be gas for reaction
Linier momentum operator
ih_hat(d/dx)
Kinetic energy operator
(h_hat^2/2m) DEL^2
Hamiltonian operator
ihat^2/2m del^2 + E_HAT_P
Blackbody average energy
E_bar = k_b T
Stationary state.
State n in which electron emitsz no radiatoin
Change in energy between state 1 and 2
Planck*frequency = E2E1
Ionization energy
Energy needed to remove elecytron
Rhydberg formula
Shows average frequency (1/wavelength) of an emission spectra