Fish and Amphibian Lab

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  1. Vertebrata
    • Subphylum of chordata
    • Cartilaginous/bony backbone.
    • Notochord
    • Postanal tail
    • Pharyngeal gill slits
    • skull around the brain.
  2. Petromyzontida
    • Class with lampreys
    • fishlike
    • cartilaginous skeleton
    • Sucking mouth with teeth, no jaws
    • no paired appendages
  3. 4 scale types
    Placoid: scales are small, tooth-like. Found in Chondrichthyes.

    Ganoid: scales are diamond shaped and present in primitive bony fishes like the gar.

    Cycloid and Ctenoid: xharacterize modern bony fish. Thin and flexible.
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    Placoid scales
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    What are these tail types?
    A: Heterocercal (sharks)

    • B: Diphycercal (lungfish)
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    What is the tail type on the far right?
    Homocercal (perch)
  7. Chondrichthyes
    • Class with skates, rays, and sharks.
    • Fishlike with ventral mouth
    • jaws present
    • paired appendages
    • cartilaginous skeleton
    • many with heterocercal tail
    • No swim bladder (use liver)
    • No operculum
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    What is structure A?`
    Lateral line
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    What are indicated by B?
    Ampullae of Lorenzini
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    What is structure C?
    Lateral-line canal
  11. What large internal organ functions in keeping the shark buoyant?
    Since they lack a swim bladder, they use their liver.
  12. What structure helps slow the passage of food through the gut?
    Spiral valve
  13. Why would slowing the passage of food through the guy to be beneficial?
    To allow more time for nutrients to be absorbed.
  14. Actinopterygil
    • bony skeleton
    • usually homocercal tail
    • swim bladder present
    • operculum present
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    What is structure A?
    Anterior dorsal fin
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    What is structure B?
    Posterior dorsal fin
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    What is structure C?
    Caudal fin
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    What is structure D?
    Vertebral column
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    What is structure E?
  20. Image Upload 12
    Which structures are indicated by F?
    Opercular bones.
  21. Image Upload 13
    What is structure G?
  22. What is the function of the lateral line?
    Sensory. Pores make up the lateral line, sense water currents. Can sense smells and electrical currents.
  23. Amphibia
    • Class with frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians
    • Skin with mucoid secretions
    • 3 chambered hearts
    • larvae usually aquatic
    • Respiration by lungs, gills, skin, mouth lining.
  24. Urodela
    • Order with salamanders
    • body with head, trunk, and long tail.
    • Usually 2 pairs of equal sized limbs
    • some respire through skin
    • larval characteristics: external gills, absence of eyelids, prescence of lateral line, and a fin-like tail.
    • Some adults retain these characteristics.
  25. Gymnophiona
    • Order with caecilians
    • body limbless and wormlike
    • small scales present in some species
    • tail absent
  26. Anura
    • Order with frogs and toads
    • head and trunk fused
    • tail absent
    • two pairs of limbs, elongated hind-limbs
    • large mouth and lungs
    • Anuran tougues are attached at the front of the mouth for projection to capture prey.
  27. What skeletal elements in frogs represent specific adaptations for jumping?
  28. How many chambers does a frog heart have?
  29. Do amphibians have a closed or open circulatory system?
  30. What is a unique method of gas exchange in amphibians?
    Cutaneous respiration
  31. What are the evolutionary advantages of operculum?
    It passes water over the gills and helps protect them.
  32. Which order has a fused head and trunk?
  33. Which order has an elongate, wormlike body?
  34. Which order has two pairs of limbs and a large mouth?
  35. Which order has a body with head, trunk, and tail in adults?
  36. Which order has two, equal sized pairs of legs?
  37. Which order lacks limbs and limb girdles?
Card Set
Fish and Amphibian Lab
okstate zool 1604
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