Child Development

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Author:
manjinder
ID:
146650
Filename:
Child Development
Updated:
2012-04-09 21:35:00
Tags:
Development
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Description:
appropriate ages of development
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  1. Stranger anxiety
    appears at 6 months, reaches peak at 8 months, disappear after 12 months
  2. Separation Anxiety
    • appears at 8 to 12 months; begins to disappear at 20-24 months
    • Separation anxiety disorder (school phobia) is failure to resolve separation anxiety.
  3. Conception of death
    • until age 5 have no conception of death as an irreversible process
    • only after age 8 or 9 really understands that death is universal, inevitable, and irreversible
  4. Moro reflex
    "hang on for life"
    abduct/extend limbs when startled, and then draw together. Disappear at the end of 3rd month
  5. Rooting Reflex
    movement of head toward one side if cheek or mouth is stroked (nipple seeking)
  6. sucking reflex
    sucking response when roof of mouth is touched
  7. Palmar and plantar reflexes
    curling of fingers/toes if palms of hands/feet are stroked
  8. Babinski reflex
    dorsiflexion of large toe and fanning of other toes w/ plantar stimulation. disappears at the end of 1st year
  9. Gallant reflex
    stroking along one side of the spine while newborn is in ventral suspension (face down) causes lateral flexion of lower body toward stimulated side
  10. Birth-3 months
    • Social: smile
    • Verbal/cognitive: orients and responds to voice
  11. 7-9 months
    • Motor: sits alone, crawls, transfers toys from hand to hand
    • Verbal/congnitive: responds to name and simple instructions, uses gestures
  12. 12-15 months
    Walks and say few words
  13. 1-2 years
    • Motor: walks along, climbs stairs, stacks 3 blocks
    • Social: rapprochement (dependency on parental figure; moves away from and then returns to mother), onlooker play
    • Verbal/congnitive: 200 words and 2 word sentences at age 2
  14. 2-3 years old
    • Motor: high activity level, feeds self w/ fork and spoon, kicks ball, stands on tiptoes
    • Social: selfish and self-centered, NO is favorite word, core gender identity, parallel play
    • Verbal/cognitive: Toilet training, parents understand most words, identifies body parts by pointing
  15. 3-4 yrs old
    • Motor: rides tricycle, copies line or circle drawings, Unbuttons buttons
    • Social: fixed gender identity, comfortably spends part of day away from mother
    • Cognitive/ language: completes sentences, 900 words, strangers can understnad
  16. 4-5 yrs old
    • Motor: Uses buttons and zippers, grooms self (brushes teeth), hops on 1 foot
    • Social: cooperative play, imitation of adult rotes, nightmares and monster fears, imaginary fears
    • Cognitive/ language: can tell detailed stories and use prepositions. Name colors
  17. 5-6 yo
    • Motor: complete sphincter control, dresses nad undresses self, draws recognizable man w/ head, body and limbs
    • Social: conformity to peers important, romantic feeling for others
    • Cognitive/ Language: asks the meaning of words
  18. 6-12 yo
    • Motor: rides bicycle, gains athletic skill, refined motor skills
    • Social: separation of the sexes, organized sports possible
    • Cognitive/language: shift from egocentric to social speech, incomplete sentences decline
  19. Tanner Stage: Breast
    • 1 Preadolescent
    • 2 Breast Bud
    • 3 Areolar diameter enlarges
    • 4 secondary mound; separation of contours
    • 5 mature female
  20. Tanner stages: Female and Male Pubic Hair
    • 1 none
    • 2 sparse, long, straight
    • 3 darker, curling, increased amount
    • 4 course, curly, adult type
    • 5 adult, extends to thighs
  21. Tanner stage: Male genitalia
    • 1. childhood size
    • 2. enlargement of scrotum/testes
    • 3. penis grows in length, testes continue to enlarge
    • 4. penis grows in length/breadth, scrotum darkens, testes enlarge
    • 5. adult shape/size

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