Nur 103 test 3

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golfdiva
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146680
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Nur 103 test 3
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2012-04-12 11:50:47
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neuropathy epilepsy shingles migraines
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test 3
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  1. What are seizures?
    • brief disturbance in the brain's electrical activity
    • causing temporary changes in:
    • movement
    • awareness
    • feelings
    • behavior
  2. What is epilepsy?
    a general term for a variety of neurological conditions causes recurrent seizures
  3. partial simple
    • complex
    • general absence (petite mal)
    • clonic tonic(grand mal)
  4. What are partial seizures?
    activation of only a restricted part of one cerebral hemisphere
  5. What are generalized seizures?
    they affect the entire brain.
  6. What are simple partial seizures?
    memory, awareness, consciousness retained/preserved manifestations depend on involved area of brain
  7. What are some manifestations of simple partial seizures?
    • Motor
    • Jerking
    • muscle rigidity
    • spasms
    • head turning
    • Sensory: Unusual sensations affecting either:
    • vision
    • hearing
    • smell
    • taste
    • touch
    • can have hallucinations
    • Autonomic Nervous System
    • Memory or emotional disturbances
    • tachycardia
    • feelings of déjà vu
    • inappropriate fear
    • anger
  8. What are complex partial seizures?
    • consciousness is impaired
    • Most common type of seizure in older adults
    • Automatisms
    • Loses consciousness with environment
    • Amnesia common after seizure
    • Several hours may elapse before pt regains full consciousness
  9. What are automatisms?
    • non-purposeful movements such as:
    • lip smacking
    • chewing
    • fidgeting
    • walking
    • other repetitive, involuntary but coordinated movements
  10. What usually are the phases of a tonic clonic generalized seizure?
    • Warning aura
    • tonic phase
    • clonic phase
    • deep sleep
    • postical
  11. Describe the tonic phase of a genralized seizure.
    • Patient loses consciousness and usually collapses. stiffening of the body
    • 15-60 seconds
  12. Describe the tonic phase of a generalized seizure.
    • violent jerking
    • 30-60 seconds
  13. Describe the postical phase of a generalized seizure.
    deep sleep
  14. What are some things to be aware of during and after a generalized seizure?
    • during:
    • injuries
    • accidents
    • tongue biting
    • urinary/bowel incontinence.
    • Following:
    • Unconscious and unresponsive to stimuli initially
    • then confused
  15. Describe an absence general seizure.
    • 5-10 seconds, maybe more
    • few seconds loss of consciousness
    • few if any, other symptoms
    • typically interrupts an activity and stares blankly.
    • begin and end abruptly
    • may occur several to 100 times a day.
    • Patients are usually not aware that they are having a seizure
    • but may be aware of losing time.
  16. What are some safety precautions for a tonic clonic seizure?
    • time the duration of the seizure
    • lower the person to the floor to prevent injury
    • Clear the area of any sharp or dangerous objects
    • Gently turn the person on one side to keep the airway open
    • Place a soft object under the person’s head or cradle the head with your hand
    • Gently loosen any restrictive clothing
    • remove glasses
    • cover the person with a blanket to maintain dignity
  17. What to do after a clonic tonic seizure.
    • help to reorient
    • allow the person to rest somewhere comfortable
  18. What should one NOT do during a clonic tonic seizure?
    • Place anything in the mouth
    • touch or hold the tongue
    • Restrain the person
    • Administer liquids or foods until the person is fully conscious
    • Attempt to give oral medications
  19. When to call 911:
    • The seizure lasts more than 5 minutes = Status Epilepticus
    • Continuous seizures or short periods of calm between seizures
    • Repeated seizures have cumulative effect, leading to muscle contractions, leading to resp complicaitons and exhaustion.
    • Maintain airway – priority.
    • This is the person’s first seizure or if you don’t know whether the person has had a seizure before
    • The seizure takes place in water
    • The person is injured during the seizure
    • the person has diabetes or is pregnant
    • Normal breathing or complexion does not return after the seizure has stopped
  20. What are some meds used to treat seizures?
    • IV Valium
    • Ativan
    • Dilantin
    • Neurontin
    • Topamax
    • Tegretol
    • Clonopin
    • Dextrose for hypoglycemia
  21. What are some precepitating factors of seizures?
    • Hormones
    • Anger
    • Excitement
    • Fatigue
    • Keep a journal of events to determine precipitating factors
  22. What causes shingles?
    Herpes Zoster virus enters body during a chicken pox infection, it remains dormant until it has an opportunity to florish
  23. Is shingles contagious?
    • You can't catch shingles from someone else.
    • But there is a small chance that a person with a shingles rash can spread the virus to another person who hasn't had chickenpox and who hasn't gotten the chickenpox vaccine.
  24. What are the s/s of shingles?
    • Early s/s:
    • headache, sensitivity to light, and flu-like symptoms without a fever.
    • Then:
    • itching, tingling, or pain where a band, strip, or small area of rash may appear
    • rash is only on one side of the body
    • rash:
    • blisters, then scab over,
    • pain more than itch
  25. How is shingles treated?
    • Antiviral medicines:
    • acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir
    • Over-the-counter pain medicines:
    • acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen
    • topical antibiotics
  26. How is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), treated?
    • Antidepressant medicines
    • tricyclic antidepressant (for example, amitriptyline).
    • Topical anesthetics
    • benzocaine, Lidocaine patches, (Lidoderm)
    • Anticonvulsant medicines,
    • gabapentin, pregabalin.
    • Opioids
  27. What is a migraine?
    a recurring primary headache, often initiated by a triggering event and usually accompanied by a neurologic dysfunction.
  28. What are some migraine triggers?
    • Rapid changes in blood glucose levels
    • stress
    • emotional excitement
    • fatigue
    • alcohol intake
    • stimuli such as bright lights
    • food high in tyramine or other vasoactive substances ( e. g., aged cheese, nuts, chocolate, and alcoholic beverages)
    • menstrual cycle
  29. Describe a migraine.
    • unilateral pain
    • throbbing
    • (can become bilateral later)
    • moving can intensify pain
    • Chills, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and sensitivity to light, sound, or odor are often present.
    • Other:
    • blurred vision,
    • anorexia,
    • hunger,
    • diarrhea,
    • abdominal cramping,
    • facial pallor,
    • sweating,
    • stiffness or tenderness of the neck.
    • lasts 4 to 72 hours and then gradually subsides.
  30. What happens after a migraine headache?
    • the headache area is sensitive to touch,
    • deep aching is present.
    • The patient is exhausted.
  31. What are some meds used to abort a migraine?
    • Almotriptan (Axert)
    • Eletriptan (Relpax)
    • Frovatriptan (Frova)
    • Naratriptan (Amerge, Naramig)
    • Rizatriptan (Maxalt)
    • Sumatriptan (Alsuma, Dosepro, Imitrex, Sumavel, Treximet)
    • Zolmitriptan (Zomig)
  32. What are some meds used to prevent migraines?
    • high blood pressure meds:
    • beta-blockers (propranolol (Inderal), timolol)
    • calcium channel blockers (verapamil (Covera)Antidepressants:
    • amitriptyline (Elavil)
    • nortriptyline (Pamelor)
    • Antiseizure medications:
    • gabapentin (Neurontin)
    • topiramate (Topamax)
    • valproic acid (Depakote)
    • Botox

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