D.P. Chapter 9

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  1. social psychology
    how humans are influenced by other people; focuses on the individual & on immediate perceived social situation
  2. social development
    • •how aspects (ex. emotion, personality, attachment, self, morality, gender) of our social life develop
    • •we'll discuss 4 theories:
    • 1) psychoanalytic theories
    • 2) learning theories
    • 3) theories of social cognition
    • 4) ecological theories of development
  3. Psychoanalytic Theories
    •dominated by Freud and Erikson
  4. psychoanalytic theory: Freud
    • • development occurs as a result of needing to satisfy basic
    • biological drives
    • • there's a continuity of individual differences early experiences, aka a series of universal developmental stages
  5. psychic energy
    the biologically based, instinctual drives that motivate behavior, thoughts, and feelings
  6. erogenous zones
    areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development
  7. Freud's Personality Structure:
    divided into 3 parts:

    1) Id: the biological drives, the earliest and most primitive, unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure

    2) Ego: (starts at a year old); rational, logical, problem-solving component

    3) Superego: (seen in ages 3-6); internalization of the parents' beliefs, and standards
  8. Oral Stage of Psychosexual Development
    (first year); the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity; during this stage, the mother is established as the strongest love-object
  9. Anal Stage of Psychosexual Development
    (1-3 years old); the primary source of pleasure comes from POOPING
  10. Phallic Stage of Psychosexual Development
    (3-6 years old); characterized by the localization of pleasure in the genitalia
  11. Latency Stage of Psychosexual Development
    (6-12 years); characterized by the channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable activities
  12. Genital Stage of Psychosexual Development
    (12+ years); sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal (!!!!!!!!!!)
  13. Superego Development
    • •Oedipus complex: psychosocial conflict in which a boy experiences sexual desire for his mother and wants an exclusive relationship with her
    • •Electra complex: Freud thought girls experience a similar but less intense conflict involving erotic feelings toward the father, resulting in their developing a weaker conscience than boys do
  14. Erik Erikson: life-span developmental theory
    • • his theory includes the influence of other factors such as culture and contemporary issues
    • • includes 8 age-related stages (5 during childhood & adolescence); each stage = a specific crisis
  15. Erikson's Stages (5 out of 8)
    1) Trust vs. Mistrust: (Infancy, 0-18 months); Feeding happens; children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection; lack of this leads to mistrust

    2) Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (early childhood, 2-3 years); toilet training happens; children develop personal control over physical skills & independence; success leads to autonomy; failure = feelings of shame and doubt.

    3) Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool, 3-5 years); exploration happens; children assert control & power over the environment; success leads to a sense of purpose; children who exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in guilt.

    4) Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11 years); school happens; children cope with social and academic demands; success = sense of competence; failure = inferiority.

    5) Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence, 12-18 years) social relationships 'happen'; teens develop a sense of self and personal identity; success = ability to stay true to yourself; failure = role confusion & weak sense of self
  16. Current Perspectives Support:
    • Freud's:
    • 1) emphasis of early experience and emotional
    • relationships
    • 2) recognition of the role of subjective experience and
    • unconscious mental activity

    Erikson's: search for identity in adolescence
  17. Overview of How Children's Nature Comes About
    • • external factors (through reinforcement & punishment) shape personality and social behavior
    • • contemporary learning theorists also recognize the influence of cognitive factors & the active role
  18. systematic desensitization
    inspired by Watson; combines positive reinforcement with the presentation of the feared object; therefore person is desensitized to whatever they're afraid of
  19. Skinner's Operant Conditioning
    • •viewed attention as a powerful reinforcer
    • •showed there's difficulty extinguishing a behavior that's been previously reinforced
    • •behavior modification
  20. Bandura – Bobo Doll Experiment
    • •demonstrated that the learning of new behaviors happened by observing others
    • •included vicarious reinforcement
    • •observing someone else receive a reward or punishment for behavior affects the subsequent reproduction of the behavior
    • •boys = more aggressive than girls
    • • girls increased their level of imitation (aggression) when rewarded
  21. vicarious reinforcement
    reinforcement that occurs when you imitate the behavior of someone who has been reinforced for that behavior; ex. avoiding hot water after seeing another person burned by it
  22. reciprocal determinism
    concept that child-environment influences operate in both directions (a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment); Bandura's theory
  23. Perceived Self-Efficacy (Bandura)
    people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce ideal outcomes or perform well on tasks levels that influence how they actually perform said events

    • -Study: half people were told they did really well on a test, and half were told they did poorly
    • -the first group who was told they performed poorly did much worse on the second test
    • -if you perceive yourself as doing well, it affects your own performance later on in a positive way
  24. social cognition theory
    • to think and reason about their own and other people's thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors
    • -emphasizes the process of self-socialization: ???
  25. Selman's Stage Theory of Role Taking
    • -role taking: ability to adopt the perspective of another person
    • -Selman theorized that the process of role taking helps a child develop socially
    • -they'll pay more attention to what people do/say in a normal situation; become more observant
    • -Selman saw role taking as a simulation for social situations in real life (getting ready for an active participation in real life)
  26. Selman's 4 Stages of Development
    1) 6-8 yrs: another person can have a different perspective from their own, but they attribute this to the other person not having the same information they do

    2) 8-10 yrs: they're able to think about the other persons' POV

    3) 10-12 yrs: Children can systematically compare their own and the others' points of view

    • 4) 12+ yrs: adolescents can compare another
    • person!s perspective to that of a generalized
    • other
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D.P. Chapter 9
2012-04-10 02:32:28

Theories of Social Development
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