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how many times a day do infants void?
how many times a day do preschool void?
q 2 hr
how many times a day do adults void?
how many ml does the male void ?
the hourly urine output should at least be?
this amount reflects adequate kidney perfusion q 24 hr ?
which structures are involved in urinary elimination?
- 5.urinary meatus
- 6.internal & external urinary spinchters
- 7.bowmans capsules
- 8.system of tubules
each kidney contains_________ , which are the working units.
1 million nephrons
avg urine output is ?
inflammation of the bladder
abnormalalities found in urinalysis
Hematuria:blood in theurine
Ketouria:kestones in the urine
Pyuria:pus in the urine
Glycosuria:glucose in the urine
Proteinuria:protein in the urine
Casts occur in increased numbers in the presence of bacteria or protein, and indicate urinary calculi (stones) or renal disease.
RBC in the urine greater than 0 to 2 per high -power field of the microscope may indicate a stone , tumor, glomerular, disorder, cystitis (bladder inflammation), or bleeding disorder.
Bilirubin: in urine suggest liver disease or obstruction of the bile duct.
putting in a solution
decreased urine output
chair with container inserted to catch urine or feces
narrowing, usually of a tube or opening
opening through which urine drains
abnormal urinalysis report
- color:tea color
- glucose +1
- protein +1
- leukocytes: moderate
consist of a cluster of capillaries and a system of tubules
carries urine to the kidneys to the bladder
extracts metabloic waste
carries urine to the outside of the body
controls the release of urine from the bladder
a patient should void at least Q?
inability to prevent passing urine
voiding during the night
urine left in the bladder after elimination
urine retained in the bladder after voiding
an instrument that reads the amount of light the urine absorbs, or chemical dipstick
normal range for specific gravity
ph of urine is slightly acid. what is range
commom urinary tract infection
ways to decrease URI and cytitis
- 1.increase fluid intake to 2500-3000ml
- 2.avoid citrus fruits and juice
- 3.wipe anal gland from front to back
- 4.females avoid wearing thongs,pantyhoes 5.dont sit around in wet bathing suits
- 6.dont use bubble baths, hygeine sprays
- 7.females pea right after sex and drink a glass of water
- 8.empty the bladder Q2-3 hrs
ways to prevent bladder infections
- 1.take vitamin c supplements
- 2.eat prunes, plums, cranberries