Antibiotics Part 1 Chpt 38
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Having or pertaining to the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism. The term is used most commonly to refer to antibacterial drugs
One of two types antimicrobial agent; a chemical that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms without necessarily killing them. Antiseptics are also called static agents
Antibiotics that kill bacteria
Antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth.
The designation for a broad, major class of antibiotics that includes four subclasses; penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams; so named because of the
beta-lactam ring that is part of the chemical structure of all drugs in this class
Any of a group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring structures in beta-lactam antibiotics
Medications combined with certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactamase enzymes
The establishment and growth of microorganisms on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes, or in secretions
without causing adverse clinical signs or symptoms
An infection that is acquired by persons who have not been hospitalized or had a medical procedure recently (within the past year).
The administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture and sensitivity testing identifying the pathogen causing infection
One of two types of topical antimicrobial agent; a chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microorganisms. Also called cidal agents
The administration of antibiotics based on the practitioner's judgement of the pathogens most likely
to be causing an apparent infection; it involves the presumptive treatment of an infection to avoid treatment delay before specific culture information has been obtained
An inherited disorder in which the red blood cells are partially or completely deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme in the metabolism of glucose. Certain medications can cause hemolytic anemia in patients with this disorder. This is an example of a host factor related to drug therapy
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
An infection that is acquired during the course of receiving treatment for another condition in a health care facility. The infection is not present or incubating at the time of admission
Health care-associated infection
Factors that are unique to the body of a particular patient that affect the patient's susceptibility to infection and response to various antibiotic drugs
Invasion and multiplications of microorganisms in body tissues
Microscopic living organisms (also called microbes)
Antibiotics taken before anticipated exposure to an infectious organism in an effort to prevent the development of infection
Prophylactic antibiotic therapy
A necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy. A more general term that is also used is antibiotic-associated colitis.
A common genetic host factor in which the rate of metabolism of certain drugs is reduced
Referring to antibiotic treatment that is ineffective in treating a given infection. Possible causes include inappropriate drug therapy, insufficient drug dosing, and bacterial drug resistance
(1) An infection occurring during antimicrobial treatment for another infection, resulting from overgrowth of an
organism not susceptible to the antibiotic used. (2) A secondary microbial infection that occurs in addition to an earlier primary infection, often due to weakening of the patient's immune system function by the first infection.
Substances that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause one or more development abnormalities in the fetus.
Referring to antibiotic therapy that results in sufficient concentrations of the drug in the blood or other tissues to render it effective against specific bacterial pathogens
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