Nutrition 12 ch 8

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  1. What are vitamins?
    Vitamins are vital to life and their molecules have an "amine" group on them.

    • Vital = vita
    • amine = amin

    Organic compounds necesarry in the diet that promote and regulate things like growth, reproduction, and maintenene of health.
  2. What are water-soluble vitamins?
    Vitamins that can dissolve in water.

    They are not stored in the body. What isn't used is eliminated in urine. They need to be replenished by eating food that contains them.

    Water soluble vitamins can be destroyed by heat, light, and oxygen.
  3. What are fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitamins that can dissolve in fat.

    • Fat soluble vitamins are stored in fat in your body and also stored in the liver. Because of this they stay in your body longer than water soluble vitamins.
    • Fat solube vitamins also need special carriers to move through the blood stream.

    Too much of some vitamins can be bad for you and you can develop a vitamin toxicity ( vitamin poisoning ). Since fat soluble vitamins are stored in your body and stay in or body longer they are more likely to cause toxicity.
  4. What are the water soluble vitamins?
    • All the B vitamins:
    • B1 - Thiamin
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B3 - Niacin
    • B5 - Pantothenic acid / pantothenate
    • B6 - Pyridoxine / pyridoxal / pyridoxamine (pyridox)
    • B7 - Biotin
    • B9 - Folic acid
    • B12 - Cobalimin

    • And also Vitamin C - ascorbic acid :)

    No B4, no B8 - No "before" or "bait".
  5. What are the fat soluble vitamins?
    • Vitamin A - Retinol
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K

    Just remember, "ADEK"!
  6. Grains are a good source of...
    Most B vitamins except 7 and 12...

    • B1 - Thiamin
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B3 - Niacin
    • B5 - Pantothenic acid
    • B6 - Pyridoxine
    • B9 - Folate / folic acid
  7. Vegetables are a good source of...
    • Fat soluble vitamins, except D...
    • Vitamin A, E, and K

    • B vitamins...
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B3 - Niacin
    • B6 - Pyridoxine
    • B9 - Folate / folic acid

    And Vitamin C
  8. Fruits are a good source of...
    • B9- Folate / folic acid
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
  9. Oils are a good source of...
    Vitamin E

    That's pretty much it.
  10. Dairy products are a good source of..
    • B2 - Riboflavin
    • B12 - Cobalamin

    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  11. Meats are a good source of...
    First, think about it, we need all these vitamins to keep healthy and so do the animals that meat we consume comes from. So meat is a good source of every vitamin except:

    B6 and Vitamin E
  12. What does it mean when a food is fortified with something?
    It has had something ( vitamins or minerals usually ) added to it that wasn't already there or were not there in large enough amounts.
  13. What does it mean when something is enriched?
    A food that is enriched has nutrients added to it that were lost during processing.
  14. What does Bioavailability mean?
    How well a nutrient can be absorbed and used by the body.
  15. What are coenzymes?
    A molecule ( that's not made of protein ) that attaches to an enzyme so the enzyme can function.

    All B vitamins are coenzymes.
  16. What are some general symptoms of deficiencies of B vitamins?
    • Dermatitis - general skin problems.
    • GI problems - vomiting, diarrhea, , nausea
    • Nervous system - central ( brain ) and periphreal ( other nerves ) - headache, dementia
    • Fatigue.
  17. B1 / thiamin
    Beri Beri...
    Due to: B1 / Thiamin deficiency

    • Two forms:
    • Wet beri beri: symptoms - edema ( water retention, swelling ) due to weak capillaries
    • Dry beri beri: symtoms - muscle paralysis, damaged nerves.

    Vit B1 important for: muscles, nerves, blood vessels

    No known toxicity.
  18. B1 / Thiamin
    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome...
    Caused by: B1 deficiency due to alcohol abuse.

    Alcoholism can prevent the proper absorption of B1.

    Symtoms - Confusion, disorentattion, memory loss, jerky eye movements.

    No known toxicity for B1.
  19. B2 / riboflavin
    Due to: B2 / riboflavin deficiency ( a-something in medicine means a lack of "something" - asymptomatic means no symptoms. Ariboflavinosis = no riboflavin )

    Symptoms - Skin lesions, cracks pustules and redness around mouth, inflamed eyelids, smoothe purplish tongue.

    No known B2 toxicity.
  20. B3 / Niacin
    Due to: deficiency of B3 / Niacin

    Symptoms: The "three Ds" Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia. Oh and also a couple more - depression, memory loss.

    Niacin toxicity - Too much niacin can lead to "Niacin Flush" ( painful flush, hives, rash ), excessive sweating, blurred vision, liver damage.

    • RDA for B3 / Niacin is 15mg / day.
    • UL for B3 / Niacin is 35mg / day.
  21. B5 / Biotin
    No real diseases but possible deficiency from eating raw eggs...
    A protein in raw eggs, avidin, will bind with B5 / biotin and prvent B5 from being absorbed.

    Symptoms of B5 / Biotin deficiency: Depression, fatigue, hallucinations, tingling sensations, rash around eyes, nose, and mouth, hair loss, dermatitis.
  22. B6 / pyridoxine
    B6 deficiency...
    B6 deficiency...

    Symptoms: depression, microcytic anemia, headaches, tingling in extremeties, seizure, confusion, poor growth, skin lesions, decreased antibody formation. Lot's huh? Vitamin B6 is important for a lot of things.

    B6 / pyridoxine toxicity - Too much vitamin B6 can cause nerve problems, depression, and skin lesions.

    • RDA B6 - 1.3mg / day
    • UL B6 - 100 mg / day
  23. B9 / Folate / folic acid
    Neural tube defects, anemia, heart disease...
    B9 / folate / folic acid deficiency symptoms: poor growth, problems with nerve development and function, diarrhea, inflamation of tongue, anemia.

    Macrocytic anemia: Red Blood Cells ( RBCs ) need B6 to be able to duplicate their DNA, they need to duplicate their DNA so they can divide, and need to divide to make new RBCs. Without B9 the blood cell just gets bigger instead of dividing and dies faster than a normal RBC.

    Neural tube defects: Women who are in early pregnancy or soon to be pregnant who do not get enough B6 in their diet are at risk of having their fetus develop a neural tube defect. As a fetus develops, their spine forms in kind of a tube. At 28 days into pregnancy the tube -should- close and be fully formed. A few birth defects that can occur are:

    Spina bifida: occurs when the neural tube does not completely close around the spine and can leave the spinal cord exposed. This is the more common of the two neural tube disorders.

    Anencephaly: means "without brain". When this occurs the neural tube does not completely close around the skull and part of the skull, brain, and scalp do not form.

    Heart disease: ( not a neural tube disorder ) B9 is needed to convert homocystine in the body into methionine. If there is not enough of it in the diet homocystine does not get converted and methionine levels increase, this can lead to heart disease.

    B9 toxicity? - Too much B9 in the diet itself does not lead to toxicity but it can mask the symptoms of B12 deficiency and make it harder to diagnose.
  24. B12 / Cobalamin
    B12 deficiency, macrocytic anemia, increased homocysteine levels
    B12 is needed to convert folate into an active form that allows DNA to copy itself. Without it, DNA cannot replicate, cells cannot divide or duplicate, and you end up with macrocytic anemia.

    B12 / cobalamin deficiency symptoms: fatigue, neurological symptoms - numbness and tingling, abnormalitis in gait, memory loss, disorientation, macrocytic anemia.

    B12 and digestion - B12 is attched to protein in food. Stomach acid is needed to separate if from the food protein. It then binds to intrinsic factor in the small intestine. Once bound to intrinsic factor it can then be absorbed by SI. If there is not enough stomach acid, B12 may not be absorbed well enough.
  25. Vitamin C / ascorbic acid
    Lack of Vitamin C / ascorbic acid can lead to scurvy.

    Symptoms of scurvy: poor wound healing, muscle degeneration, bone and joint pain, bone fractures, loose teeth. Weakened blood vessels can lead to bleeding gums and bruising easily.

    Toxicity can cause: Other symptoms are nausea, insomnia, depression, headache, fatigue, addominal cramps, diarrhea, hot flashes and rashes. So it can affect the brain, GI tract, and skin.

    • RDA - 90mg / day for men and 75mg / day for women
    • UL is 2000mg / day
  26. What's it good for?
    B1 / Thiamin...
    Thiamin helps pull CO2 off of other molecules, which is a necesarry process in converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA which then goes into the citric acid cycle which then makes ATP. So, B1 / Thiamin helps make energy.

    It also helps in the metabolism of other sugars, amino acids, and synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. So it ensures proper nerve function.

    Whole grains, pork, and beans are good sources.

    • RDA - 1mg / day
    • UL - none.
  27. What's it good for?
    B2 / Riboflavin...
    Riboflavin keeps the Electron Transport Chain working so it helps produce energy. It also helps break down fatty acid.

    Good sources are: dairy products, whole and enriched grains, pork, fish, leafy greens.

    • RDA - 1mg / day
    • UL - none
  28. What is it good for?
    B3 / Niacin...
    Niacin allows glycolysis to work which allows glucose to become pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA -> citric acid cycle -> electron transport chain -> ATP / energy. It also helps bring electrons to the electron transport chain itself. So, niacin helps produce ATP / energy. Niacin also helps synthesize and break down fatty acids.

    Good sources of niacin: Any protein-containing food will have some niacin in it.

    Good sources are: Milk, eggs, meat, whole and enriched grains, nuts, beans, fish.

    Tryptophan ( like in turkey ) can be made into Niacin.

    • RDA 15mg / day
    • UL - 35 mg / day
  29. What's it good for?
    B5 / Pantothenic acid
    B5 / Pantothenic acid is part of Acetyl-CoA which enters the citric acid cycle and eventually produces ATP / energy. Pantothenic acid helps produce energy / ATP. It also helps synthesize and break down lipids.

    Good sources: Meat, mushrooms, whole grains, eggs, fish, legumes.

    • RDA - 5mg / day
    • UL - none
  30. What's it good for?
    B6 / Pyridoxine...
    B6 / Pyridoxine helps make mylein which coats nerves - so it helps maintain nerve function. It also synthesizes hemoglobin which is the part of red blood cells that carry oxygen. B6 also aids in metabolism of proteins, fats ( amino acids ) and carbohydrates.

    Good sources: Meat, fish, poultry, soy products, brown rice, beans.

    • RDA - 1.3mg / day
    • UL - 100mg / day
  31. What's it good for?
    B7 / Biotin
    Biotin is a coenzyme that helps certain enzymes add the acid group to other molecules. This is a necesarry step in the citric acid cycle so biotin helps make ATP / energy. It also helps synthesize fat, amino acids, and glycogen.

    Good sources: organ meats, soybeans, egg yolk, fish.

    • RDA - 30ug ( micrograms ) / day
    • UL - none.
  32. What's it good for?
    B9 / Folate / folic acid...
    Folate allows DNA to replicate and allows cells to divide. It also aids in metabolism of amino acids.

    Good sources: leafy greens, fortified grains ( like fortified bread, spaghetti ), legumes, nuts, seeds, and lentils.

    Folate in nature is bound to many glutamate molecules, in this form it is called folate polyglutamate. In this form it cannot be absorbed in the SI.

    • RDA - 400ug ( micrograms ) / day
    • UL - 1000ug / day

    In fortified foods and supliments it is usually bound to just one glutamate molecule, in this form it is called folate monoglutamate. In this form it can be absorbed in the SI.
  33. What's it good for?
    B12 / Cobalamin...
    B12 activates folate so DNA can replicate and cells can divide. It maintains nerve cells and helps metabolism of amino acids.

    Good sources: meat, fish, poultry, dairy products.

    • RDA - 2.4ug ( micrograms ) / day
    • UL - none
  34. What's it good for?
    Vitamin C / ascorbic acid...
    Vitamin C is used for collagen synthesis, acts as an antioxidant to help resist infection, and helps absorb iron. It also helps synthesize hormones and neurotransmiters.

    Good sources: citrus fruits, dark green vegetables, and strawberries.

    • RDA - 90mg / day for men, 75mg / day for women
    • UL - 2000mg / day
Card Set
Nutrition 12 ch 8
Nutrition 12 ch 8
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