Anti-infective and Anti-inflammatory Drugs Antiviral Drugs Chpt 40
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Infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the host's immune system, giving rise to opportunistic infections by pathogens that normally coexist in the body with minimal health affects
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Immunoglobulin molecules that have an antigenspecific amino acid sequence and are synthesized by the humoral immune system (antibodies produced from B lymphocytes) in response to exposure to a specific antigen, the purpose of which is to attack and destroy molecules of this antigen.
A substance, usually a protein, that is foreign to a host (e.g., human) and causes the formation of an antibody
and reacts specifically with that antibody. Examples of antigens include bacterial exotoxins, viruses, and allergens. An allergen (e.g., dust, pollen, mold) is a specific type of antigen that causes allergic reactions
A specific term for antiviral drugs that work against retroviruses such as HIV.
A general term for drugs that destroy viruses, either directly or indirectly by suppressing their replication.
One of two major parts of the immune system. It consists of nonspecific immune responses mediated primarily by T lymphocytes (T cells) and other immune system cells (e.g., monocytes, macrophaes, neutrophils) but not by antibody-producing cells (B lymphocytes).
The process by which viruses attach themselves to, or fuse with, the cell membranes of host cells, in preparation for infecting the cell for purpose of viral replication
The complete set of genetic material of any organism; it may consist of multiple chromosomes (groups of DNA or RNA molecules) in higher organisms; a single chromosome, as in bacteria; or one or two DNA or RNA molecules, as in viruses
Several different types of viruses belonging to the family Herpesviridae that cause various forms of herpes infection
The retrovirus that causes AIDS.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
One of two major parts of the immune system. It consists of specific immune responses in the form of antigen-specific antibodies produced from B lymphocytes
Synonymous with immune globulins. Glycoproteins (sugar proteins) synthesized and used by the humoral immune system to attack and kill any substance (antigen) that is foreign to the body. An immunoglobulin with an antigen-specific amino acid sequence is called an antibody and is able to recognize and inactivate molecules of a specific antigen
The viruses that cause influenza, an acute viral infection of the respiratory tract. There are three types of influenza virus: A, B, and C. Currently, medications are available only to treat types A and B
a general term referring to DNA and RNA. These complex biomolecules contain the genetic material of all living organisms, which is passed to future generations during reproduction.
A structural component of nucleic acid molecules (DNA or RNA) that consists of a purine or pyrimidine base attached to a sugar molecule
A nucleoside that is attached to a phosphate unit, which makes up the side chain “backbone” of a DNA or an RNA
Infections caused by any type of microorganism that occur in an immunocompromised host but normally would not occur in an immunocompetent host.
An enzyme that breaks down the amino acid structure of protein molecules by chemically cleaving the peptide bonds that link together the individual amino acids
Any process of duplication or reproduction, such as that involved in the duplication of nucleic acid molecules (DNA or RNA) during the reproduction processes of all living organisms. This is also the term used most often to describe the entire process of viral reproduction, which occurs only inside the cells of an infected host organism
viruses belonging to the family Retroviridae. These viruses contain RNA (as opposed to DNA) as their genome and replicate using the enzyme reverse transcriptase. Currently the most clinically significant retrovirus is HIV.
An RNA-directed DNA polymerase enzyme. Such an enzyme promotes the synthesis of a DNA molecule from an RNA molecule, which is the reverse of the usual process. HIV replicates in this manner
A nucleic acid composed of nucleotide units that contain molecules of the sugar ribose, phosphate groups, and purine and pyrimidine bases. RNA molecules transmit genetic information and are found in both the nuclei and
cytoplasm of cells. (compare with deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA])
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A mature virus particle
The smallest known class of microorganisms;
viruses can only replicate inside host cells.
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