medical terms

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medical terms
2013-01-24 14:39:36
medical terms nurse nursing

definition of terms I have been known to forget or confuse
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  1. Adhesions
    • The union of two opposing tissue surfaces.
    • This term is often used to refer to the sides of a wound, as well as to scar tissue strands that can form at the site of a previous operation, such as within the abdomen after a laparotomy.
  2. Amputation
    Removal of part or all of a body part
  3. Anastomosis
    a: a communication between or coalescence of blood vessels b: the surgical union of parts and especially hollow tubular parts
  4. apnea
    • transient cessation of respiration
    • whether normal (as in hibernating animals) or abnormal
  5. Arthroplasty
    plastic surgery of a joint (as the hip or knee) : the operative formation or restoration of a joint
  6. Atelectasis
    collapse of the expanded lung
  7. anemia
    a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume
  8. Autologous blood transfusion
    involving one individual as both donor and recipient
  9. arthrocopy
    examination of a joint with an arthroscope
  10. Malignancy
    tending to produce death or deterioration; especially: tending to infiltrate, metastasize, and terminate fatally
  11. Neoplasm
    a new growth of tissue serving no physiological function : tumor
  12. nosocomial infection
    acquired or occurring in a hospital
  13. Palliative surgery
    ease without curing
  14. AKA
    above the knee amputation
  15. acute
    having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course
  16. aura
    a subjective sensation (as of voices or colored lights or crawling and numbness) experienced before an attack of some nervous disorders (as epilepsy or migraine)
  17. adjuvant drugs
    • serving to aid or contribute;
    • assisting in the prevention, amelioration, or cure of disease
  18. anabolism
    • building up of cells
    • the constructive part of metabolism
  19. antibiotic resistant microrganism
    an organism that has become immune to antibiotics
  20. antibiotic
    medicine that kills bacteria
  21. autonomy
    the quality or state of being independent, free, and self-directing
  22. Health Insurance Por·ta·bil·i·ty and Accountability Act
    a federal law enacted in 1996 that protects continuity of health coverage when a person changes or loses a job, that limits health-plan exclusions for preexisting medical conditions, that requires that patient medical information be kept private and secure, that standardizes electronic transactions involving health information, and that permits tax deduction of health insurance premiums by the self-employed—abbreviation HIPAA
  23. PCA
    Patient controlled analgesia
  24. Penrose drain
    abdominal drain placed in a wound to drain fluid. It consists of a soft rubber tube placed in a wound area, to prevent the build up of fluid.
  25. Paralytic ileus
    • obstruction of the bowel;
    • ileus resulting from failure of peristalsis
  26. Perioperative period
    the time before, during and after surgery
  27. Postoperative period
    the time after surgery
  28. Benign neoplasm
    • a new growth of tissue serving no physiological function : tumor
    • does not threaten health or life
  29. Preoperative period
    the time right before surgery
  30. Regional anesthesia
    anesthesia of a region of the body accomplished by a series of encircling injections of an anesthetic
  31. Sterile field
    an area that is free from living organisms and especially microorganisms
  32. Sepsis
    a systemic response to a serious usually localized infection (as of the abdomen or lungs) especially of bacterial origin
  33. Biopsy
    the removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body
  34. cancer
    malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis
  35. Debridement
    the usually surgical removal of lacerated, devitalized, or contaminated tissue
  36. Dehiscence
    the parting of the sutured lips of a surgical wound
  37. Evisceration
    to protrude through a surgical incision or suffer protrusion of a part through an incision
  38. General anesthesia
    anesthesia affecting the entire body and accompanied by loss of consciousness
  39. Granulation tissue
    tissue made up of granulations that temporarily replaces lost tissue in a wound
  40. Spinal anesthesia
    anesthesia produced by injection of an anesthetic into the subarachnoid space of the spine
  41. Hematoma
    • a mass of usually clotted blood that forms in a tissue, organ, or body space as a result of a broken blood vessel
    • a large black and blue mark
  42. Hemovac
    sucking machine for wounds
  43. Intraoperative period
    occurring, carried out, or encountered in the course of surgery
  44. Suture
    • a stitch made with a suture
    • b: a strand or fiber used to sew parts of the living body
    • c: the act or process of sewing with sutures
  45. Laparoscopy
    • 1: visual examination of the inside of the abdomen by means of a laparoscope
    • 2: an operation (as tubal ligation or gallbladder removal) involving laparoscopy
  46. VAC Dressing
    V.A.C. is an abbreviation for Vacuum Assisted Closure®, a system for applying negative pressure to wounds, which is claimed to accelerate healing of chronic wounds.
  47. Serous
    • of, relating to, producing, or resembling serum
    • especially having a thin watery constitution
  48. Serosanguineous
    containing or consisting of both blood and serous fluid
  49. Sanguineous
    of, relating to, or containing blood
  50. Purulent
    containing, consisting of, or being pus
  51. aplastic
    • not exhibiting growth or change in structure
    • incomplete or faulty development of an organ or part
  52. hemoglobin
    any of numerous iron-containing respiratory pigments of red blood cells that functions primarily in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
  53. hemolytic
    • anemia caused by excessive destruction of red blood cells
    • (as in chemical poisoning, infection, or sickle-cell anemia)
  54. hyperchromic
    • 1. excessive pigmentation (as of the skin)
    • 2: a state of the red blood cells marked by increase in the hemoglobin content
  55. hypochromic
    • 1: deficiency of color or pigmentation
    • 2: deficiency of hemoglobin in the red blood cells (as in nutritional anemia)
  56. intrinsic factor
    a substance produced by the normal gastrointestinal mucosa that facilitates absorption of vitamin B12
  57. macrocytic
    an exceptionally large red blood cell occurring chiefly in anemias (as pernicious anemia)—
  58. microcytic
    an abnormally small red blood cell present especially in some anemias
  59. pernicious anemia
    • a severe hyperchromic anemia
    • hemoglobin content of the red blood cells decrease in number increase in size
    • pallor,
    • weakness,
    • gastrointestinal and nervous disturbances
    • associated with reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor—called also addisonian anemia
  60. BKA
    below the knee amputation
  61. crepitus
    grating or crackling sound or sensation (as that produced by the fractured ends of a bone moving against each other)
  62. closed reduction
    the reduction of a displaced part (as a fractured bone) by manipulation without incision
  63. fracture
    the breaking of hard tissue as bone
  64. dislocation
    displacement of one or more bones at a joint
  65. fusion
    the surgical immobilization of a joint
  66. internal fixation
    the immobilization of the parts of a fractured bone especially by the use of various metal attachments
  67. herniated nucleus pulposus
  68. ORIF
    open reduction internal fixation
  69. laminectomy
    Share on twitterLaminectomy is surgery to remove the lamina, part of the bone that makes up a vertebra, or bone spurs in your back. The procedure can take pressure off your spinal nerves or spinal canal.
  70. MRI
    • magnetic resonance imaging
    • also: a procedure in which magnetic resonance imaging is used
  71. open reduction
    realignment of a fractured bone after incision into the fracture site
  72. osteoarthritis
    • degenerative and sometimes hypertrophic changes in the bone and cartilage of one or more joints
    • progressive wearing down of apposing joint surfaces
    • symptomatically especially by pain, swelling, and stiffness
  73. radiculopathy
    any pathological condition of the nerve roots
  74. spinal stenosis
    narrowing of the lumbar spinal column that produces pressure on the nerve roots resulting in sciatica and a condition resembling intermittent claudication and that usually occurs in middle or old age
  75. traction
    a pulling force exerted on a skeletal structure (as in a fracture) by means of a special device or apparatus
  76. spondylolisthesis
    forward displacement of a lumbar vertebra on the one below it and especially of the fifth lumbar vertebra on the sacrum producing pain by compression of nerve roots
  77. sprain
    • a sudden or violent twist or wrench of a joint causing the stretching or tearing of ligaments and often rupture of blood vessels with hemorrhage into the tissues
    • usually marked by swelling, inflammation, hemorrhage, and discoloration
  78. strain
    • undue stretching of muscles or ligaments
    • mechanical overloading
  79. EEG
    • electroencephalogram
    • electroencephalograph
  80. gingival hyperplasia
    in the gums, an abnormal or unusual increase in the elements composing a part (as cells composing a tissue)
  81. herpes zoster
  82. rhizotomy
    the operation of cutting the anterior or posterior spinal nerve roots
  83. status epilepticus
    a single prolonged seizure or a series of seizures without intervening full recovery of consciousness
  84. trigger zones
    A specific area that, when stimulated by touch, pain, or pressure, excites an attack of neurologic pain
  85. neuropathy
    an abnormal and usually degenerative state of the nervous system or nerves
  86. tonic-clonic
    a generalized seizure that is initially tonic and then becomes clonic and is characterized by the abrupt loss of consciousness
  87. varicella-zoster virus
    chicken pox
  88. pain threshold
    • the point where one starts feeling pain
    • mostly uniform from person to person
  89. pain tolerance
    the amount of pain a person will allow before taking pain relievers
  90. endorphins
    any of a group of endogenous peptides found especially in the brain that bind chiefly to opiate receptors and produce some of the same pharmacological effects (as pain relief) as those of opiates
  91. parenteral
    introduced otherwise than by way of the intestines
  92. nociceptors
    a receptor for injurious or painful stimuli : a pain sense organ
  93. referred pain
    pain felt in one place but it actually comes from somewhere else
  94. intramuscular
    administered by entering a muscle
  95. subcutaneous
    under the skin
  96. bariatrics
    a branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of obesity
  97. carbohydrates
    any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, and celluloses) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods
  98. catabolism
    breaking down to release energy
  99. fats
    animal tissue consisting chiefly of cells distended with greasy or oily matter
  100. metabolism
    • the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is
    • anabolism + catabolism
  101. minerals
    compound that results from the inorganic processes of nature
  102. morbid obesity
    a condition that is characterized by excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body and that in an adult is typically indicated by a body mass index of 30 or greater
  103. nosocomial infection
    an infection acquired or occurring in a hospital
  104. RDA
    recommended daily allowance
  105. superinfection
    a second infection superimposed on an earlier one especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin that is resistant to the treatment used against the first infection
  106. vitamins
    organic substances that are essential in minute quantities to the nutrition
  107. acidosis
    a condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH
  108. Alkalosis
    excessive proportion of alkali in the blood
  109. adrenal cortex
    the outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes hormones
  110. adrenal mudulla
    inner portion of adrenal gland
  111. afferent
    carrying toward the center
  112. albumin
    a type of protein found in blood plasma
  113. anaphase
    a stage of mitosis when the chromosomes move to opposite poles
  114. anaplasia
    an abnormal growth, tumor, neoplasm
  115. anuria
    no urine
  116. arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries
  117. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  118. atelectasis
    collapse of the alvoeli of the lung
  119. bolus
    a small hunk of chewed food ready to be swallowed
  120. bradycardia
    slow heart rhythm
  121. buccal
    the cheek
  122. callus
    bony tissue that connect the ends of a broken bone to help it heal
  123. carbohydrate
    carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, sugars, starches, cellulose
  124. cecum
    pouch at the end of the large intestine
  125. cerumen
    ear wax
  126. Cheyne-Stokes respirations
    cycles of apnea and hyperventilation associated with brain injury or drug overdose
  127. Chlamydia
    bacterium that infects human cells
  128. cholecystectomy
    gallbladder removal
  129. cholelithiasis
  130. chyme
    partially digested food leaving the stomach
  131. colitis
    inflammation of the colon
  132. compensated metabolic acidosis
    the body successfully adjusts its chemistry after metabolic acidosis developed
  133. concave
    depressed surface
  134. Cushing syndrome
    hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex
  135. decubitus ulcer
    bed sore
  136. diaphysis
    the shaft of a long bone
  137. distole
    the relaxation of the heart between contractions
  138. distolic pressure
    the blood pressure in the arteries during diastole
  139. distal
    towards the end of a structure, away from the middle
  140. dorsal
    toward the back
  141. duodenum
    the beginning of the small intestine where most chemical digestion happens
  142. dysentery
    inflammation of the colon
  143. dyspnea
    difficulty or painful breathing
  144. autonomic
  145. dysuria
    painful urination
  146. efferent
    carrying away from the center
  147. embolism
    obstruction that is moving in the blood stream
  148. enteritis
    inflammation of the small intestine
  149. enuresis
    involuntary urination
  150. epiglottis
    lid overhanging the larynx
  151. epiphyseal fracture
    the end of the bone, the growth plate, is broken
  152. epiphysis
    the end of a long bone
  153. erythema
    redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes
  154. erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  155. esophagus
    food pipe
  156. fibrin
    clots blood
  157. gastritis
    inflammation of the lining of the stomach
  158. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  159. hematocrit
    volume percent of blood cells in the whole blood
  160. food poisoning
  161. hematopoiesis
    blood cell formation
  162. hematuria
    blood in the urine
  163. hemoglobin
    iron containing protein in red blood cells
  164. urticaria
  165. hypoxia
    not enough oxygen in the blood
  166. ileum
    the end of the small intestine
  167. inguinal
    of the groin
  168. lateral
    towards the side
  169. lesion
    any objective abnormality in a body structure
  170. ligament
    white fibrous tissue connecting bones
  171. medial
    toward the middle
  172. micturition
  173. myalgia
    pain in a muscle
  174. myeloma
    bone tumor
  175. myopathy
    bone disease
  176. neuralgia
    nerve pain
  177. neuroma
    nervous tissue tumor
  178. oliguria
    scanty amounts of urine
  179. orthopnea
    difficulty breathing that is relieved by sitting up
  180. papillae
    small, nipple shaped elevations
  181. papilloma
    benign skin tumor
  182. peritoneum
    slippery sheet that lines the abdomen/pelvic cavity
  183. pleura
    membrane in the thoracic cavity
  184. popliteal
    behind the knees
  185. sarcoma
    muscle tumor
  186. stoma
    opening creating in a colostomy
  187. synovial fluid
    lubrication fluid between bones and joints
  188. systole
    contraction of the heart
  189. tacycardia
    fast heart rate
  190. tic douloureux
    trigeminal neuralgia
  191. trachea
    wind pipe
  192. anticholinergic
    blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerve; used to treat spastic disorders of the GI tract, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions before surgery to dilate the pupil
  193. steatorrhea
    bulky, foul-smelling stool
  194. borborygmi
    loud, rushing bowel sounds indicate increased peristalsis
  195. Orthostatic hypotension
    • a drop in BP of more than 10
    • pulse increase of 10 beats per minute
    • when changing from a lying to a sitting position or
    • from a sitting to a standing position.
    • It is an indicator of fluid volume deficit.
  196. somatic
  197. parietal peritoneum
    serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity
  198. visceral peritoneum
    serous membrane lining the abdominal organs
  199. septicemia
    a systemic disease caused by pathogens or their toxins in the blood
  200. peritonitis
    contamination of peritoneal cavity by infection or a chemical irritant
  201. -asthenia
  202. fascia
    sheet, band
  203. iso-
  204. tarso-
  205. -tope
  206. cyt-
  207. odont-
  208. leuk-
  209. -esthesia
  210. cantho-
    angle at the end of the eyelid
  211. steno-
    narrow, contracted
  212. cheil-
  213. -cele
  214. celio-
  215. vaso-
  216. melan-
  217. cauda-
  218. myring-
  219. spondyl-
    spinal column
  220. iatr/o
  221. ile/o
  222. ili/o
  223. nephr/o
  224. neur/o
  225. neutr/o
  226. onc/o
  227. onych/o
  228. ophthal/o
  229. oste/o, oss/i, osse/o
  230. path/o
  231. ped/o
  232. psych/o
  233. radi/o
    x-rays, radius
  234. ren/o
  235. rhin/o
  236. sarc/o
  237. thromb/o
  238. ur/o, urin/o
    urine, urinary system
  239. centesis-
  240. oto-
  241. bili-
  242. squam
  243. mening-
  244. macul-
  245. onco-
  246. or-
  247. sub-
  248. spiro-
  249. lacrim-
  250. viscero-
  251. lact-
  252. thorac-
  253. pyle-
  254. vesic-
  255. sphenic-
  256. myel-
    marrow, spinal cord
  257. myco-
  258. algia

  259. crani-

  260. end-
    inside, within

  261. hemi-

  262. -oid

  263. hyper-
    above, more than normal

  264. cyst-
    sac containing fluid

  265. chole-

  266. hypo-

  267. -scop-

  268. hyster-

  269. para-
    beside, beyond

  270. -lysis
    loosening, destruction

  271. ost-

  272. lip-

  273. my-

  274. lith-

  275. ophthalm-
  276. eye

  277. proct-

  278. cost-

  279. gram-

  280. acro-
  281. rhexis
    break, burst
  282. carcin-
  283. -penia

  284. gen-
    original, production
  285. burso-
  286. retr(o)-
  287. trip-
    rub, friction
  288. strept-
  289. -desis
  290. mani-
  291. glosso-
  292. -trophy
  293. supra-
  294. -ptosis
  295. -dyn-
  296. mast-
  297. -rrhaphy
  298. dent-
  299. cephal-
  300. auto-
  301. epi-
  302. hydro-
  303. lumen
    inside space of a tube
  304. thrombocytopenia
    decrease of platelets in the blood
  305. leukopenia
    decrease in white blood cells
  306. Hematochezia
    stool containing red blood and clots
  307. melena
    black, tarry stool, due to containing blood
  308. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  309. lysis
    breaking up
  310. Thrombus
    a blood clot formed by aggregation of platelets
  311. thrombocytopenia
    low blood platelet count
  312. leukorrhea
    vaginal discharge (during pregnancy)
  313. antepartal care
    the care of a pregnant woman, begins with conception and ends with the onset of labor
  314. Gravida
    refers to how many times a woman has been pregnant, reguardless of the outcome.
  315. para
    any birth that occured after 20 weeks gestation
  316. GTPAL
    • T = number of term infants born (after 37 weeks)
    • P = number of preterm infants born ( 20 - 37 weeks) 
    • A = number of pregancies ended before 20 weeks 
    • L = number of  current children living 
  317. nullgravida
    a woman who has never been pregnant
  318. primigravida
    a woman who is pregnant for the first time
  319. multigravida
    a woman who is pregnant for at least the second time.
  320. epistaxis
    nose bleed
  321. Nasopharyngitis
    common cold
  322. Pharyngitis
    strep throat