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a note at the bottom of tha page in a book which provides more detailed info about something that is mentioned on that page
- person that has been existed before something and either influenced the development or were a sign of what was going to happen.
- Coll: the forerunner of sth/sb
an authorization granted by a government or company to an individual or group enabling them to carry out specified commercial activities.
fraud (fraudulent: adj)
[mass noun]wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain
[count noun] a person or thing intended to deceive others, typically by unjustifiably claiming or being credited with accomplishments or qualities:mediums exposed as tricksters and frauds
gauge (gaugeable: adj)
- [noun] 1. an instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something
- 2. the thickness, size, or capacity of something, especially as a standard measure, in particular.
- 3. Nautical, archaic the position of a sailing ship to windward ( the weather gage) or leeward (the lee gage) of another.
- 1. estimate or determine the amount, level, or volume of.
- 2. measure the dimensions of (an object) with a gauge
germinate (germination: n)
- [no object] (of a seed or spore) begin to grow and put out shoots after a period of dormancy.
- [with object] cause (a seed or spore) to germinate.come into existence and develop:
- 1. total amount of sth, esp money, before any has been taken away
- Coll: a ~ profit/income/margin
- ~ interest/revenues
- 2. total amount of sth, after all the relevant amounts have been added together.
- Coll: ~ sales/proceeds
- [v] earn that amount of money before tax has been taken away
- Coll: a flim/movie ~
- innovative; pioneering:
- Coll: ~ research/work
- a ~ discovery/ceremony/study/series
- truly ~
[noun] a set of straps and fittings by which a horse or other draught animal is fastened to a cart, plough, etc. and is controlled by its driver.an arrangement of straps for fastening something such as a parachute to a person’s body or for restraining a young child.
- [verb] [with object]
- 1. put a harness on (a horse or other draught animal): how to groom a horse and harness it
- 2. control and make use of (natural resources), especially to produce energy.
- Coll: ~ power/energy/potential/technology
- successfully/properly/ ~ sth
- Phrase: in harness
- - (of a horse or other animal) used for driving or draught work
- - in the routine of daily work
- - so as to achieve something together
- [mass noun] understanding of a situation or event only after it has happened or developed
- Coll: with/in ~
- historical/twenty - twenty ~
- ~ suggests/prompts sth
Phrase: the benefit of hindsight
- showing or feeling opposition or dislike; unfriendly
- of or belonging to a military enemy:hostile aircraft
- [predic.] opposed
- 1. denoting or relating to a liquid moving in a confined space under pressure
- 2. relating to the science of hydraulics:hydraulic analysis of streams
- 3. (of cement) hardening under water.
- Coll: ~ conductivity/fluid/steering
- a ~ lift/pump/brake
- [plural noun]
- 1. [usually treated as singular] the branch of science and technology concerned with the conveyance of liquids through pipes and channels, especially as a source of mechanical force or control.
- 2. hydraulic systems or forces
- Coll: sophisticated/internal ~
- a ~ failure/labolatory/engineer
[adjective] relating to or denoting the generation of electricity using flowing water (typically from a reservoir held behind a dam or barrage) to drive a turbine which powers a generator:economic and environmental aspect of the hydroelectric scheme
- Coll: a ~ dam/plant/project
- ~ power
- [noun] (plural hypotheses /-siːz/)
- a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
- [Philosophy] a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without any assumption of its truth
- Coll: test/support/confirm/propose a ~
- a null/testable/alternative ~
[adverb] in the same source (used to save space in textual references to a quoted work which has been mentioned in a previous reference)
- 1 [mass noun] visually descriptive or figurative language, especially in a literary work:
- 2. visual images collectively
- Coll: ~ in/of sth
- vivid/powerful/striking/strong ~
- visual/mental/ computer - generated/digital ~
- sexual/religious/erotic ~
- 1. about to happen
- 2. [archaic] overhanging.
- Coll: an ~ treat/danger/attack/war
- the ~ demise/collapse/release of sth
- an ~ arrival/departure
implicit (implicity: n)
- 1. suggested though not directly expressed
- 2. (implicit in) always to be found in; essentially connected with
- 3. with no qualification or question; absolute
- 4 [Mathematics] (of a function) not expressed directly in terms of independent variables.
- Coll: an ~ assumption/understanding/message
- an ~ threat/criticism/warning
- a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something
- a payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment
- Coll: an ~ for sth/sb
- provide/offer/give/create/an ~
- a financial/economic/added/extra/additional ~
- a tax/cash/strong/powerful/perverse ~
- >< discentive
- 1. the occurrence, rate, or frequency of a disease, crime, or other undesirable thing
- the way in which the burden of a tax falls upon the population
- 2 .[mass noun] Physics the intersection of a line, or something moving in a straight line, such as a beam of light, with a surface:the point of incidence of the beam
- [verb] (incurs, incurring, incurred)
- [with object] become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behaviour or actions
- Coll: ~ costs/expenses/expenditure/damage
- ~ a charge/fee/loss/debt
- ~ a penalty/fine/liability
- ~sb's wrath
- [verb] [with object]
- 1. [with object and infinitive] succeed in persuading or leading (someone) to do something:the pickets induced many workers to stay away
- 2. bring about or give rise to
- produce (an electric charge or current or a magnetic state) by induction
- [Physics] cause (radioactivity) by bombardment with radiation.
- 3 [Medicine] bring on (the birth of a baby) artificially, typically by the use of drugs:(as adjective induced)induced labourbring on childbirth in (a pregnant woman) artificially, typically by the use of drugs:
- 4. [Logic] derive by inductive reasoning:from the experimental evidence, one infers or induces the hypothesis
- Coll: ~ a state/feeling/sense/change
- ~ a response/reaction/heart attack/coma
- ~ sleep/vomiting/fear/panic/relaxation
- impossible to stop or prevent
- impossible to persuade; unrelenting
- Coll: an ~ rise/decline/slide/force/pressure
- ~ progress/growth/logic
Phrase: the ~ march of/towards sth
- [verb] (infers, inferring, inferred)
- [with object] deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements
- Coll: ~ the meaning/existence of sth
- reasonably ~
- [usually with object]
- 1. fill (a balloon, tyre, or other expandable structure) with air or gas so that it becomes distended:never use an air line on a garage forecourt to inflate your tyres
- [no object] become distended with air or gas:the mattress inflated
- 2. increase (something) by a large or excessive amountexaggerate
- 3. bring about inflation of (a currency) or in (an economy):he has inflated the money supply to allow companies to continue in their old ways
- Coll: ~ a balloon/tyre/airbag/raft/lung
- a balloon/airbag ~s
- existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute
- [Law] vested in (someone) as a right or privilege.
- [Linguistics] (of an adjective) having the same meaning in both attributive and predicative uses
- Coll: ~ in sth
- an ~ risk/danger/problem/weakness/flaw
- an ~ quality/characteristic/part/contradiction
- 1. impossible to solve
- 2. (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved
- 1. necessary to make a whole complete; essential or fundamental
- included as part of a whole rather than supplied separately
- having all the parts that are necessary to be complete
2 [Mathematics] of or denoted by an integer.involving only integers, especially as coefficients of a function.
- [Mathematics] a function of which a given function is the derivative, i.e. which yields that function when differentiated, and which may express the area under the curve of a graph of the function.
- Coll: ~ to sth
- an ~ part/component/element/aspect/role
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