Card Set Information
Dates of the two World Wars
World War I (1914-1918) World War II (1939-1945)
List 11 scientific advancements of the 20th century:
Airplanes, walked on the moon, sound recordings, movies, radio, satellites, computers, the Internet, theory of relativity, probed the unconscious, discovered the structure of DNA
During the 20th century the dominant culture centers shifted from Vienna and Paris to ______________ and _________________.
New York and Hollywood
Who painted a "graphic representation of a mood and not of objects?"
Whose ballet provoked a riot in Paris in 1913?
List ten early 20th century composers
Claude Debussy, Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Béla Bartók, Dmitri Shostakovich, Charles Ives, George Gershwin, William Grant Still, Aaron Copland, and Alberto Ginastera
T/F20th century composers used a common style throughout most of the century.
What 3 characteristics of American jazz did composers find so intriguing?
syncopated rhythms, improvisational quality, and tone colors
List some sources of musical ideas for modern composers:
folk and popular music, western music, Hungarian, Bulgarian, and Romanian folk songs, and peasant music
What is a glissando?
a rapid slide up or down a scale
How would you characterize the use of instruments by early 20th century composers?
experimental and unusual
What happened to the traditional roles of consonance and dissonance in much 20th century music?
they were abandoned in much music.
A combination of two or more chords at a time is called a ______________________.
What body parts could play a tone cluster?
Fist or forearm
What did the new rhythmic vocabulary emphasize?
irregularity and unpredictability
Two or more contrasting rhythms together is called _________________________.
a motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section
What is the new concert hall of the 20th century?
What was the first opera created for television?
Amahl and the Night Visitors
Why, for the first time in music history, did 20th century audiences prefer old traditional works at concerts?
To avoid alienating audiences, many conductors chose not to perform “difficult” contemporary works, but favored works that were relatively accessible in style.
What was the first milestone for black performers in America?
baritone Todd Duncan performed at the New York City Opera company in 1945 and the contralto Marian Anderson sang at the Metropolitan Opera in 1955.
How did Hitler help the arts in America?
Many composers left Europe to come to America.
What part have American colleges and universities played in our musical culture?
They have trained and employed many of our leading composers, performers, and scholars.
What painting inspired the use of the word Impressionism to describe an artistic style of the late 19th century?
What fascinated impressionist painter most of all?
Why did Debussy leave his studies in Rome when he was 24?
He lacked musical inspiration away from Paris
How old was Debussy when he wrote "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun"?
What is a pentatonic scale?
A five tone scale
How many notes are in a whole-tone scale?
T/FDebussy's music is rich with accent and rhythmic force.
What did neoclassicism emphasize?
emotional restraint, balance, and clarity
List Stravinski's 3 early ballets:
The Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring
What shocked and outraged audiences when they first heard "The Rite of Spring"?
its pagan primitive, harsh dissonance, percussiveness, and pounding rhythms
Using one or two words, identify each of Stravinski's 4 stylistic periods.
Russian Ballets; Unconventional Ragtime; Neoclassical Exploration; Twelve-Tone
What did the expressionist emphasize in their works?
intense, subjective emotion
Who were Schoenberg's two students who became prominent composers?
Alban Berg and Anton Webern
How did Schoenberg believe his "discovery" of the twelve tone system would benefit his homeland?How was he rewarded by the Nazis?
ensure the supremacy of German music for the next hundred years; They dismissed him from his post
What is "sprechstimme"?
What four way can the tone row be presented in serial music?
forward (original form), backward (retrograde), upside down (inversion), and backward and upside down (retrograde inversion)
What was Berg's famous opera?
What kind of atmosphere does Berg's music for the opera present?
How did Webern die?
he was shot by mistake by an American soldier.
What is unusual about Webern's compositions?
Most of his works last only 2 or 3 minutes and all of his mature output can be played in less than 3½ hours
How did Bartok become an expert in Hungarian folk songs?
he spent most of his free time in tiny villages recording peasant folk songs
Since his compositions did not sell, how did Charles Ives make money?
he founded a successful insurance agency
How long after he quit composing did Ives begin to get recognition?
What was George Gershwin's opera?His most famous orchestral composition?
Porgy and Bess; Rhapsody in Blue
Which piece has the distinction of being the first piece by a black composer to be performed by a major symphony orchestra?
What did Gershwin and Copland have in common?
Their parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants.
List Copland's 3 ballets:
Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring