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  1. What are 2 types of resistance?
    non specific (innate) and specific (adaptive)
  2. What line of defense doesn't distinguish from different invaders?
    • 1st and 2nd
    • nonspecific / innate
  3. What 2 situations can specific defenses identify?
    • invader from another invader
    • invader from self cells
  4. What line of defense are most born with?
    • "innate"
    • 1st and 2nd line
  5. When are specific defenses aquired?
    after birth
  6. What does adaptation of specific defenses allow?
    improved response of future exposure to pathogens
  7. What 4 things make up the 1st line of innate nonspecific defenses?
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • chemicals
    • normal flora
  8. What 2 things does skin accomplish to defend against pathogens?
    • intact barrier blocks invasion
    • "washing action" of secretions keeps pathogens from attaching
  9. What 2 things of the 1st line of defense traps , moves, and filters organisms toward the nearest body opening?
    mucous and cilia
  10. What 5 chemicals are involved in the 1st line of defense?
    • lysozyme
    • salt
    • antimicrobial peptides
    • acid
    • bases
  11. What 1st line defensive chemical digests peptidoglycan and is found on body surfaces?
  12. How is salt a part of 1st line defenses against pathogens?
    • takes away water source from pathogens
    • found on body surfaces
  13. What 1st line defense is made of amino acids and kills many microogranisms on the skin?
    antimicrobial peptides
  14. What 3 places ia acid found?
    • stomach
    • sebum (skin's oil)
    • vagina
  15. How is acid a 1st line of defense?
    denatures pathogen's protein
  16. Where are bases found and how is it a 1st line of defense?
    • semen
    • denatures pathogen's proteins
  17. What 3 things do normal flora do making it a 1st line of defense?
    • outcompete pathogens
    • digests pathogens
    • produces vitamins for immunity to kill pathogens
  18. What 4 defenses make up the 2nd line of innate defense?
    • phagocytes
    • inflammation
    • fever
    • chemicals
  19. What 3 chemicals are innate defenses?
    • interferon
    • complement
    • iron-binding proteins
  20. What are the 4 stages of phagocytosis?
    • chemotaxis
    • adherence
    • ingestion
    • killing
  21. What are 2 primary phagocytes?
    neutrophils and monocytes
  22. What are 5 names for neutrophils?
    • PMN
    • PML
    • polysd
    • segs
    • bands
  23. What is the difference between "segs" and "bands"?
    • segs = mature neutrophils
    • bands = immature neutrophils
  24. What 5 steps make up chemotaxis?
    • invader kills cells
    • cells release chemicals
    • chemicals diffuse into vessels
    • phagocytes in vessels are alerted by chemicals
    • phagoctyes leave vessels to site of injury
  25. What kind of bacteria can phagocytes not adhere to?
    bacteria with capsule
  26. What is the phase of phagocytosis when the phagocyte takes an inavading organism in?
  27. What is a phagosome?
    lysosome inside phagoctye that digests organisms
  28. What type of bacteria can lysosomes not break down in a phagocyte?
    acid fast
  29. Do phagocytes get rid of all residue of organism they kill during exocytosis?
  30. What causes inflammation?
    tissue damage
  31. What 2 effects does inflammation have on blood vessels?
    • vasodialation
    • increased permeability
  32. What are 2 chemicals released after tissue has been damaged?
    histamine and leukotrines
  33. What are 3 kinds of WBCs do chemicals attract during inflammation?
    • macrophages
    • neutrophils
    • B + T cells
  34. What are 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
    • redness
    • edema (swelling)
    • hot temperature
    • loss of function in area
    • pain
  35. What causes edema during inflammation?
    increased permeability of vessels = more fluid released into space
  36. What is the goal of inflammation (3) ?
    • to remove invader
    • clear damage
    • set stage for repair
  37. What kind of feedback is inflammation?
    positive feedback
  38. Since inflammation is a positive feedback loop, why does it stop?
    There are no more cells releasing chemicals because theyre all in tact
  39. What is 1 reason inflammation would not cure a break in the skin?
    overwhelming infection
  40. What situation causes lysosomes to digest healthy tissue?
    • chronic inflammation
    • WBCs die @ site leaving lysosomes free
  41. What does a disease ending in -itis mean?
  42. What organ are complement proteins made by?
    the liver
  43. Where are inactive complement proteins found?
    in the blood
  44. How are complement proteins activated?
    by antibodies (IgG and IgM) + antigen complex
  45. What are 3 affects of complement proteins being activated?
    • chemotaxis
    • opsonization
    • cytolysis
  46. What protein makes up the Iron-Binding proteins?
    globin of hemoglobin
  47. How does iron- beinding protein protect us?
    • invader need iron
    • by binding iron, we eliminate that as an energy source for invaders
  48. What are 4 types of adaptive immunity?
    • naturally active
    • naturally passive
    • artifically active
    • artificially passive
  49. What adaptive immunity type is provided by injecting antibodies?
    • short term
    • artifically passive
  50. What adaptive immunity type is provided by mother's antibodies?
    • short term
    • naturally passive
  51. What 3 ways are antibodies naturally passively aquired?
    • breast milk
    • colostrum
    • through placenta
  52. What type of adaptive immunity is when your body makes antibodies when youre exposed to pathogens?
    • long term
    • naturally active
  53. What type of adaptive immunity is received after vaccination?
    • long term
    • artifically active
  54. What is the 1st milk, made 5 days before breastmilk?
  55. Why is colostrum thicker?
    more antibodies in the milk
  56. What are 4 treatments given that are artificially passive immunities?
    • gammaglobulin
    • antiserum
    • antitoxin
    • antivenom
  57. What are antigens?
    foreign proteins recognized by antibodies with matching receptors
Card Set:
2012-04-11 20:58:12

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