Card Set Information
What are 2 types of resistance?
non specific (innate) and specific (adaptive)
What line of defense doesn't distinguish from different invaders?
1st and 2nd
nonspecific / innate
What 2 situations can specific defenses identify?
invader from another invader
invader from self cells
What line of defense are most born with?
1st and 2nd line
When are specific defenses aquired?
What does adaptation of specific defenses allow?
improved response of future exposure to pathogens
What 4 things make up the 1st line of innate nonspecific defenses?
What 2 things does skin accomplish to defend against pathogens?
intact barrier blocks invasion
"washing action" of secretions keeps pathogens from attaching
What 2 things of the 1st line of defense traps , moves, and filters organisms toward the nearest body opening?
mucous and cilia
What 5 chemicals are involved in the 1st line of defense?
What 1st line defensive chemical digests peptidoglycan and is found on body surfaces?
How is salt a part of 1st line defenses against pathogens?
takes away water source from pathogens
found on body surfaces
What 1st line defense is made of amino acids and kills many microogranisms on the skin?
What 3 places ia acid found?
sebum (skin's oil)
How is acid a 1st line of defense?
denatures pathogen's protein
Where are bases found and how is it a 1st line of defense?
denatures pathogen's proteins
What 3 things do normal flora do making it a 1st line of defense?
produces vitamins for immunity to kill pathogens
What 4 defenses make up the 2nd line of innate defense?
What 3 chemicals are innate defenses?
What are the 4 stages of phagocytosis?
What are 2 primary phagocytes?
neutrophils and monocytes
What are 5 names for neutrophils?
What is the difference between "segs" and "bands"?
segs = mature neutrophils
bands = immature neutrophils
What 5 steps make up chemotaxis?
invader kills cells
cells release chemicals
chemicals diffuse into vessels
phagocytes in vessels are alerted by chemicals
phagoctyes leave vessels to site of injury
What kind of bacteria can phagocytes not adhere to?
bacteria with capsule
What is the phase of phagocytosis when the phagocyte takes an inavading organism in?
What is a phagosome?
lysosome inside phagoctye that digests organisms
What type of bacteria can lysosomes not break down in a phagocyte?
Do phagocytes get rid of all residue of organism they kill during exocytosis?
What causes inflammation?
What 2 effects does inflammation have on blood vessels?
What are 2 chemicals released after tissue has been damaged?
histamine and leukotrines
What are 3 kinds of WBCs do chemicals attract during inflammation?
B + T cells
What are 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
loss of function in area
What causes edema during inflammation?
increased permeability of vessels = more fluid released into space
What is the goal of inflammation (3) ?
to remove invader
set stage for repair
What kind of feedback is inflammation?
Since inflammation is a positive feedback loop, why does it stop?
There are no more cells releasing chemicals because theyre all in tact
What is 1 reason inflammation would not cure a break in the skin?
What situation causes lysosomes to digest healthy tissue?
WBCs die @ site leaving lysosomes free
What does a disease ending in -itis mean?
What organ are complement proteins made by?
Where are inactive complement proteins found?
in the blood
How are complement proteins activated?
by antibodies (IgG and IgM) + antigen complex
What are 3 affects of complement proteins being activated?
What protein makes up the Iron-Binding proteins?
globin of hemoglobin
How does iron- beinding protein protect us?
invader need iron
by binding iron, we eliminate that as an energy source for invaders
What are 4 types of adaptive immunity?
What adaptive immunity type is provided by injecting antibodies?
What adaptive immunity type is provided by mother's antibodies?
What 3 ways are antibodies naturally passively aquired?
What type of adaptive immunity is when your body makes antibodies when youre exposed to pathogens?
What type of adaptive immunity is received after vaccination?
What is the 1st milk, made 5 days before breastmilk?
Why is colostrum thicker?
more antibodies in the milk
What are 4 treatments given that are artificially passive immunities?
What are antigens?
foreign proteins recognized by antibodies with matching receptors