Test 3

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Author:
megxcorkie
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146826
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Test 3
Updated:
2012-04-10 17:53:25
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Biology 1010
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reproductive system test 3
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  1. Basic functional units of kidney
    nephrons
  2. regulates blood levels of sodium and potassium
    Aldosterone
  3. contains thyroxine and calcitonin
    Thyroid gland
  4. cells in wall of small intestine produce
    secretin hormone
  5. 28-day menstrual cycle plus pregnancy- Day 21
    • Zygote has traveled the length of the oviduct and has implanted into endometrium to form the placenta. This is the first critical time of every pregnancy. The pituitary is producing high levels of LH causing the corpus luteum to produce high levels of progesterone. High levels of progesterone feedback negatively on the pituitary to shut off LH.
      • To save this pregnancy, the placenta which has just formed begins to produce chorionic gonadotropin which takes the place of falling levels of LH. It stimulates the corpus luteum to continue its production of progesterone.
  6. All male accessory glands do what?
    Produce male accessory gland fluid + sperm= semen
  7. responsible for secondary sex characteristics (changes at puberty)
    estrogen


      • Females:

          1. causes uterine contraction= labor contractions



          1. causes milk-letdown



          1. responsible for mother/baby bonding








      • Males:

          1. responsible for male/female bonding



    Oxytocin
  8. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 5
    • Anterior lobe of pituitary release FSH
      1. causes all 400,000 primary oocytes to begin a developmental "race."
      2. Causes all ovarian follicles to produce estrogens
  9. urinary tract infections= ?
    Symptoms= ?
    • Prostatitis; Symptoms=
      1. Frequent urination
      2. Burning upon urination
      3. Blood in urine
      4. Slow urine stream
  10. sugar diabetes (insulin)= ?
    symptoms=?
    Diabetes mellitus and symptoms are frequent urination and thirst
  11. sperm production
    spermatogenesis
  12. responsible for metabolic rate
    Thyroxine

    • Results from hormones prolactin and oxytocin

    • First three days= colosseum

      • milk laxative

      • transports mother's antibodies to baby to prevent infection



    Lactation
  13. Sense of taste
    Taste "buds"
  14. How is hormone output regulated?
    Negative feedback
  15. A series of endocrine glands
    Endocrine system
  16. The thyroid gland and the parathyroid gland are found in what part of the body?
    Neck
  17. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 12
    High levels of FSH have caused follicles to produce high levels of estrogens. High levels of estrogens feedback negatively on pituitary to shut off FSH.
  18. responsible for reabsorption of H20 from DCT and CD
    vasopressin
  19. connection between mother and baby
    placenta
  20. when zygote implants at a site other than the endometrium
    Ectopic pregnancy
  21. 28-day menstrual cycle plus pregnancy- Day 5
    • Anterior lobe of pituitary release FSH
      1. causes all 400,000 primary oocytes to begin a developmental "race."
      2. Causes all ovarian follicles to produce estrogens
  22. gastrin hormone and secretin hormone are found in what portion of the body?
    Abdominal cavity
  23. contains chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone
    placenta
  24. stimulation hormone= signals thyroid to release hormones
    Thyroid
  25. To save pregnancy from the end of the third month through the remaining 6 months of pregnancy...
    the placenta produces progesterone
  26. Journey of sperm to site of conception
      1. Bacteria in vagina produce acid waste products which kill tens of millions of sperm
      2. Sperm must swim through cervical mucus= tens of millions get stuck and die
      3. Sperm must swim 4th length of uterus= tens of millions die
      4. Sperm must swim 4th length of oviduct= tens of millions die
      5. Sperm must swim against the current produced by beating cilia in oviduct
  27. Hypo-function of somatotropin=
    dwarfism
  28. Sensory receptors
      1. Integumentary system
      2. .
      3. .
      4. .
      5. .
      6. .
      7. Hair plexus
  29. large in young but gets smaller with age; produces thymosin hormone which activates white blood cells to fight infection
    Thymus gland
  30. regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
    Calcitonin
  31. signals pancreas to produce 6 enzymes
    secretin hormone
  32. Three processes that allow nephrons to remove metabolic wastes
    Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion
  33. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 28
    Falling levels of LH and progesterone cause a reduction of blood flow to the endometrium. The endometrium dies and is called Necrotic endometrium.
  34. parathyroid hormone is found in..
    Parathyroid glands
  35. hyper-function of thyroxin= ?
    Symptoms= ?
    • hyperthyroidism; symptoms=
      1. never tired
      2. no weight gain
      3. always hot to the touch
      4. exophthalmia
  36. has an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe
    Pituitary gland
  37. no reabsorption of water from DCT and CD takes place and you produce a large amount of dilute urine. This occurs when overly hydrated (drink too much) or after consumption of alcohol (alcohol shuts off brain release of vasopressin. This occurs if... ?
    If no vasopressin is released from the brain
  38. growth hormone
    somatotropin
  39. a process that allow nephrons to remove metabolic wastes; takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, and collecting duct;For metabolic wastes or toxins that did not leave the capillary bed and move into Bowman's capsule, in the areas of PCT, LH, DCT, and CD, the toxin moves from the peritubular capillary bed into the 4 tubules
    Secretion

    • Females:

      1. causes ovulation

      2. formation of corpus luteum

      3. causes corpus luteum to produce progesterone


    • Males:

      1. causes testes to produce testosterone


    Luteinizing hormone= LH
  40. a process that allow nephrons to remove metabolic wastes; takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, and collecting duct; The movement of valuable blood components from PCT, LH, DCT, and CD into the peritubular capillary bed. These reabsorbed substances will NOT leave the body as urine.
    Reabsorption
  41. ______________ of a variable percent of H2O from the DCT and CD to the peritubluar capillary bed is related to the amount of hormone= vasopressin released from the brain
    Reabsorption
  42. If testes are maintained at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit..
    results are sperm death and increased chance of testicular cancer
  43. The pituitary gland is found in what part of the body
    head
  44. Pregnancy tests test for...
    the presence of chronic gonadotropin which is only present if you have a placenta= pregnant
  45. little or too much of a hormone is known as
    endocrine dysfunction
  46. alters ability of glucose to pass through cell membranes. So, glucose enters cells and blood levels of glucose are lowered. Also, converts excess glucose into starch called glycogen which is stored in the liver= lowers blood sugar
    Insulin
  47. stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone
    chorionic gonadotropin
  48. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 1-5
    Necrotic endometrium and blood leave the body as menstrual flow
  49. hypo-function of thyroxine= ?
    Symptoms= ?
    • hypothroidism; symptoms=
        1. always tired
        1. easy weight gain
        1. always cold to touch
        1. if person is iodine deficient (you need iodine to make thyroxine), you see enlargement of thyroid called a goiter to prevent get dietary iodine from seafood/ iodized salt
  50. converts glycogen into glucose and raises blood sugar levels
    Glucagon
  51. hypo-function of insulin is __________ and the symptoms are= ?
    • diabetes melitus and symptoms are
      • Tired
      • Thirst
      • Frequent urination
  52. high levels of chorionic gonadotropin from placenta are causing the corpus luteum to produce high levels of progesterone. The progesterone feeds back negatively onto placenta and shuts off production of chronic gonadotropin... When does this occur?
    At the end of the third month of pregnancy
  53. regulates blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
    parathyroid hormone
  54. contains

    • Epinephrine

      • fight or flight responses



    • Norepinephrine

      • fight or flight responses



    Adrenal medulla
  55. 28-day menstrual cycle plus pregnancy- Day 12
    High levels of FSH have caused follicles to produce high levels of estrogens. High levels of estrogens feedback negatively on pituitary to shut off FSH.
  56. Nephron Filtration- What?
    The movement of the liquid portion of the blood minus the large protein= tissue fluid= lymph= glomerular filtrate from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule.
  57. contains somatotropin, FSH, LH, thyroid, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, prolactin
    anterior lobe of pituitary
  58. glands without ducts or tubes that are responsible for producing secretions called hormones
    Endocrine gland
  59. brain not releasing vasopressin (tasteless)= ?
    Symptoms= ?
    Diabetes insipidus and symptoms are frequent urination and thirst
  60. A portion of the oviduct has scar tissue and no cilia, so the zygote stops its travel and implants into oviduct. Pregnancy will continue for 2.5 months at which time the oviduct ruptures.
    Tubual pregnancy
  61. responsible for male secondary sex characteristics
    testosterone
  62. signals gastric glands to produce pepsin, mucus, and hydrochloric acid
    Gastrin hormone
  63. All urine produce=
    H2O, salts, urea
  64. When does the posterior lobe of the pituitary release oxytocin and what does it cause?
    • At the end of the ninth month; it
      • causes labor contractions
      • causes milk let down
  65. contains vasopressin and oxytocin
    posterior lobe of pituitary
  66. too little of a hormone is known as
    hypo-function
  67. Taste buds are found on
      1. Tongue
      2. Hard palate
      3. Soft palate
      4. Pharynx
  68. One sperm penetrates the secondary oocyte mII and triggers it to finish mII, aII, tII, to become an ootid, then an ovum then the sperm's nucleus fuses with the ovum's nucleus
    one celled body called zygote
  69. responsible for metabolism of fats and sugars
    Cortisol
  70. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 21
    Pituitary is producing high levels of LH causing the corpus luteum to produce high levels of progesterone. High levels of progesterone feedback negatively onto the pituitary and shut off production of LH
  71. contains insulin and glucagon
    Pancreas
  72. egg production
    oogenesis
  73. Nephron Filtration- Where?
    Between glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
  74. 28-day menstrual cycle- no pregnancy- Day 14
    • Falling levels of FSH result in falling levels of estrogens. Falling levels of FSH and estrogens stimulate the pituitary to release Luteinizing Hormone (LH).
      • LH is responsible for:
        1. Release of secondary oocyte in mII from ovary= ovulation
        2. Causing the formation of a yellow scar= corpus luteum at the site of ovulation
        3. Causing the corpus luteum to produce progesterone
  75. A high precent of H2O will be reabsorbed from DCT and CD. you will produce a small amount of concentrated urine. seen if dehydrated or after consumption of salty foods if... ?
    If a large amount of vasopressin is released from the brain...
  76. When is it best to breast feed a baby? What is so important about breast feeding at this specific time?
    • 1st three days after birth, mammary glands produce colostium
      1. contains mild laxative to ready digestive system for food
      2. contains mother's antibodies which travel into baby's blood stream to protect baby against infection
  77. 4 tastes defected by taste buds
      1. salt
      2. sweat
      3. sour
      4. bitter
  78. contains Aldosterone and Cortisol
    Adrenal cortex
  79. signals adrenal glands to release hormones
    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  80. regulates metabolism
    Thyroxine
  81. Females:

    1. stimulating mammary glands to produce milk

    Prolactin
  82. "the" hormone of pregnancy
    progesterone
  83. too much of a hormone is commonly known as
    hyper-function

    • Females:

      1. development of ovarian follicles

      2. signals follicles to produce estrogens


    • Males:

      1. spermatogenesis= production of sperm


    Follicle stimulating hormone= FSH
  84. Hyper-function of somatotropin=
      1. If too much somatotropin is produced while growth zones are present = < 18 years old. Gigantism
      2. If too much somatotropin is produced after growth zones have disappeared > 18 years old= acromegaly
  85. Mechanisms of hormone activity
      1. some hormones work by altering cell membrane permeability
      2. some hormones work by activating enzymes
      3. some hormones work by turning genes "on" and "off"= and affect protein synthesis
  86. The thymus gland is found in what portion of the body?
    The thoracic cavity
  87. 28-day menstrual cycle plus pregnancy- Day 14
      • LH:
        • causes release of secondary oocyte in mII= ovulation
        • causes formation of corpus luteum
        • causes the corpus luteum to produce progesterone
      • This time there are sperm in her reproductive tract
  88. cells in wall of stomach produce
    Gastrin hormone
  89. contains estrogens and progesterone
    ovaries
  90. Male accessory glands
    • 1. prostate gland
    • 2. seminal vesicles
    • 3. bulbourethral glands

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